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The Metre – the repeating circle & triangulation

The Metre (meaning measure) was one ten-millionth of the distance from the North Pole to the Equator! France embarked on a first large scale measurement. It took 7 years to measure the distance from Dunkirk to Barsalona. They used triangulation with an instrument called the Repeating Circle along with trigonometry.

The standardization of measurement: the Metre

Creating the Metre – a universal standard

By the 16th century, there we over 250,000 weights and measures in Europe. This effected trade, navigation, building plans, etc. Fire hoses would not connect from town to town. France chose to create a standard by measuring something unchangeable. They chose the Earth. Before this standardization, the human body (the Ruler of the land) would make new measurements upon gaining power.

The Repeating Circle

Repeating Circle
Repeating Circle

DESCRIPTION

This is one of two double repeating circles that Ferdinand Rudolph Hassler, the first superintendent of the U. S. Coast Survey, ordered from Edward Troughton in London in 1812, and that was shipped in 1815. The large circle may be angled from vertical to horizontal to the opposite vertical position. It is graduated to 10 minutes, and read by four verniers and two magnifiers to single minutes.

A repeating circle is a geodetic instrument with two telescopes that is designed to reduce errors by repeated observations taken on all parts of the circumference of a circle. The form was developed by the Chevalier de Borda, first executed by Etienne Lenoir in Paris around 1789, and popular for about 50 years.

Ref: F. R. Hassler, “Papers on Various Subjects Connected with the Survey of the Coast of the United States,” Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 2 (1825): 232-420, on 315-320 and pl. VII. “The Repeating Circle Without Reflection, as made by Troughton,” in The Cyclopaedia: or, Universal Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Literature, edited by Abraham Rees (London, 1819), Vol. VII, Art “Circle.”

Image credit:

NAME: repeating circle MAKER: Troughton and Simms PLACE MADE: United Kingdom: England, London MEASUREMENTS: overall: 32 1/8 in x 26 3/4 in x 17 in; 81.6356 cm x 67.945 cm x 43.18 cm upper circle: 17 1/2 in; 44.45 cm circle at base: 13 1/2 in; 34.29 cm telescope: 24 in; 60.96 cm overall; base: 16 3/4 in x 15 1/4 in x 16 in; 42.545 cm x 38.735 cm x 40.64 cm overall; horizontal circle: 13 in x 23 in x 20 in; 33.02 cm x 58.42 cm x 50.8 cm ID NUMBER PH.314640 CATALOG NUMBER 314640 ACCESSION NUMBER 208213


The Repeating Circle History

Developed from the reflecting circle, the repeating circle is an instrument for geodetic surveying, invented by Etienne Lenoir in 1784, while an assistant of Jean-Charles de Borda, who later improved the instrument. It was notable as being the equal of the great theodolite created by the renowned instrument maker, Jesse Ramsden. It was used to measure the meridian arc from Dunkirk to Barcelona by Jean Baptiste Delambre and Pierre Méchain (see: meridian arc of Delambre and Méchain). Source Wikipedia

12” Repeating Circle

The Repeating Circle
12 inch Repeating Circle – 1866

The repeating circle is made of two telescopes mounted on a shared axis with scales to measure the angle between the two. The instrument combines multiple measurements to increase accuracy with the following procedure:

Repeating Circle Mode of Operation:

Procedure for Repeating Circle​
Procedure for Repeating Circle


(1) The instrument is aligned so its plane includes the two points to be measured, and each telescope is aimed at a point;
(2) Keeping the angle between the telescopes locked, the left (black) telescope is rotated clockwise to aim at the right point;
(3) the right (gray) telescope’s position is noted, and it is rotated back to the left point.

At this stage, the angle on the instrument is double the angle of interest between the points. Repeating the procedure causes the instrument to show 4× the angle of interest, with further iterations increasing it to 6×, 8×, and so on. In this way, many measurements can be added together, allowing some of the random measurement errors to cancel out.

Borda Reflecting Circle

Borda Reflecting Circle​
Borda Reflecting Circle

The calculation of longitudes, indispensable for determining a ship’s exact position at sea, was not possible until the octant’s invention in the 18th century, though it lacked sufficient precision. The French mathematician Charles de Borda finally solved this problem by inventing the reflection circle.

Graduated to 720°, Borda’s circle enables the measurement of an angle between two celestial bodies. First the instrument’s telescope is aimed at a celestial body, then a second time via a small semi-reflecting mirror in the middle of the circle. This double measurement limits errors and improves the precision of measurements.

Borda carried out several tests during expeditions to the Caribbean and perfected the instrument, giving it its definitive form around 1777. This example was formerly in the physics cabinet of Jacques Alexandre César Charles.

Sources: Wikipedia, Google, Measurement history BBC Precision The Measure of All Things 1 of 3
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Trilogies as Persuasion | 1 min watch

Little Lawyer Lesson #1: Use Trilogies #shorts. Robert Gouveia Esq.

Trilogies can be very powerful tools of persuasion.
Terence McCarthy, author of MacCarthy on
Cross-Examination, explains just how important
trilogies are in trials.

Little Lawyer Lesson #1: Use Trilogies

Robert Gouveia (formerly Robert Gruler) is a
criminal defense lawyer in Scottsdale, Arizona,
and host of Watching the Watchers, a show
focused on Accountability, Transparency and
Justice.

Source: https://youtube.com/shorts/2Pg82ju0J3c?feature=share

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Security & Exchange Commission

March 6, 2022.

Gary Gensler (SEC Chairman) interview on Jon Stewart speaking about the three pillars of the SEC mission.

  • Investor protection
  • Facilitating capital formation
  • Facilitating fair orderly markets
Jon Stewart interviewing Gary Gensler (SEC)

Gary Gensler is an American government official and former investment banker serving as the chair of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Gensler previously led the Biden–Harris transition’s Federal Reserve, Banking, and Securities Regulators agency review team.

Jon Stewart is an American comedian, writer, producer, director, political commentator, actor, and television host. He hosted The Daily Show, a satirical news program on Comedy Central, from 1999 to 2015. Stewart now hosts The Problem with Jon Stewart, which premiered September 2021 on Apple TV+. Wikipedia

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3 Self-Help Books to Read If You Want To Change Your Life

Scottish author Samuel Smiles unknowingly gave birth to a new sub-genre of non-fiction with his 1859 work, Self-Help. In it, Smiles offered inspiring quotes for working class individuals who wanted to write their own rags-to-riches story through perseverance. The book sold over a quarter of a million copies, making it a bestselling title of its time. Medium reported that it also marked the beginnings of the self-help book genre, which is popular for a reason: it aims to provide insight and actionable advice for its target readers. And there are many who simply seek wisdom and comfort in what they read.

If you’re on a similar quest for self-improvement, these three titles might give you what you’re looking for:

Quiet: The Power of Introverts in a World That Can’t Stop Talking by Susan Cain

According to writer Susan Cain, nearly a third of the population classify as introverts and many more have introverted qualities. Her book, Quiet, gave many readers power during the lockdowns of COVID-19 as social needs became difficult to fulfil in isolation. It’s a comforting read that teaches us that many of the influential figures in history, from Rosa Parks to Tom Hanks, are introverts themselves. They’ve had great success in a society that very much favors the “extrovert ideal”.

A Business Insider book review highlights three key takeaways for readers:

  1. Society still values extroversion over introversion in business, politics, education, and other spheres — and this needs to change.

  2. Introverts and extroverts can create a dynamic relationship as they’ll have more success collaborating.

  3. There’s nothing wrong with being an introvert (or having introverted traits) and it’s time to find your power in it. If you want to know how, Cain’s Quiet is a great place to start.

The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and Business by Charles Duhigg

Journalist Charles Duhigg’s bestselling book The Power of Habit: Why We Do What We Do in Life and Business breaks down the science behind our habits and rituals and how we can change our detrimental ones. He argues that these habits — whether it’s on exercise, productivity or financial success — are within our control. That said, our post on The Power of Habits notes that the process of reforming habits contains three important elements: a cue, a routine, and a reward. When you are able to recognize these three, you can change any habit and turn it into one that benefits you. So whether you’re trying to, say, drop your smoking habit or be less of a micromanager to your employees, The Power of Habit is a helpful how-to guide for self-improvement.

Why We Sleep: Unlocking the Power of Sleep and Dreams by Matthew Walker

Sleep is, neuroscientist Matthew Walker’s book argues, the most important human need, yet it is also one of the most overlooked. The book explains the science behind how sleep works, but it is also a deep dive into why we need to at all. He also brings to light the health challenges that you can experience with lack of sleep, such as lowered immune function, reduced cognitive skills, and repressed growth. Getting quality sleep (not just sleeping more) can truly change your life in at least three ways:

  1. It can make you less vulnerable to disease, more focused, and more energetic.

  2. Sleep can regulate your mood and reduce your risk of mental health conditions like anxiety and depression.

  3. The healthier you are physically and mentally, the more energy and time you can devote to the important aspects of your life, such as your work, hobbies, and relationships.

If you’re having trouble hitting the hay, take a crack at Matthew walker’s self-help book. He himself says in the introduction, “So please, feel free to ebb and flow into and out of consciousness during this entire book. I will take absolutely no offense. On the contrary, I would be delighted.”

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Bill Maher | the easiest three predictions in the world

Some presidents spend their post presidency building homes for the poor, or raising money for charity, or painting their toes. Trump has spent his figuring out how to pull off the coup he couldn’t pull off last time. Here’s the easiest three predictions in the world.

* Trump will run in 2024

* He will get the Republican nomination

* And whatever happens on election night the day he will announce that he won

I’ve be saying it ever since he lost.

Bill Maher | Real Time | October 8 2021
Bill Maher | Real Time
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Pawn Stars | Silver Dollar Certificate

This series opens the doors to the only family-run pawnshop in Las Vegas, where three generations of the Harrison family use their sharp-eyed skills to assess what’s real and what’s fake. Objects the colourful customers bring in range from the obscure to the truly historic, and it’s up to the guys at the Gold & Silver Pawn Shop – with help at times from their network of experts – to reveal the sometimes surprising answer to `What’s this worth?’.

Genre: Reality television. Original release: July 19, 2009 – present
Pawn Stars | Silver Dollar Certificate

Rick talks about three different people making the engraving for the silver dollar certificate to prevent counterfeiting.

Rick Harrison
Pawn Stars shop cast
Pawn Stars shop cast | Rick Harrison, Chumlee, Corey Harrison & Richard Harrison
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After spending 5 years studying millionaires, I’ve found that there are 3 types of people who end up the wealthiest

Thomas C. Corley, Contributor Sep 8, 2018, 10:18 PM

• To become wealthy there are a few things you have to do with your money. 

• Thomas C. Corley studied and interviewed 233 wealthy individuals over the course of four years and found three common ways they build their fortunes.

• “Saver-investors” focused on having no debt, lived well below their means, and invested and saved for many years. 

• “Virtuosos” were the best of the best in their careers, and worked for companies that gave stock options or owned their own highly-profitable businesses. 

• “Dreamers” were the wealthiest group: They pursued a big dream and made it a reality, which led to some massive gain or income.

What I found is that there were three predominant paths rich people pursued in order to accumulate their wealth.

1. The ‘saver-investors’

Just less than 22% of the rich people in my Rich Habits Study fell into this category. The “saver-investors” all had zero debt, and the passive income generated by their invested savings was enough to meet or exceed their standard of living.

They all had five things in common:

1. They had a low standard of living and

2. They typically made a modest income and

3. Their modest income exceeded their low standard of living and

4. They saved 20% or more of their modest income for many years and

5. They consistently and prudently invested their savings for many years.

It took the Savers about 32 years to accumulate an average wealth of $3.4 million.

2. The ‘virtuosos’

Approximately 27% of the rich people in my study were “virtuosos.” These rich people were virtuosos in their career, industry, or profession. They were among the best at what they did.

These individuals either worked for large, publicly-held corporations, in which a significant portion of their compensation was stock-based compensation or they were entrepreneurs/small business owners with enterprises that were highly profitable.

It took the virtuosos about 20 years to accumulate an average wealth of $4 million.

3. The ‘dreamers’

The “dreamers” were by far the wealthiest group in my study. Approximately 51% of them were individuals who pursued some big dream and were able to turn that dream into a reality. Their dream eventually provided them with an enormous amount of income, profit, or gain, and they accumulated an average of $7.4 million in about twelve years.

The point to all of this is: There is more than one way to skin a cat. If you’re risk averse, it does not disqualify you from becoming rich. If you have no dream or you’re not interested in saving your way to wealth, becoming a virtuoso in what you do for a living can make you rich. If you are not a saver or a virtuoso, pursuing some dream that makes your heart sing can also make you wealthy.

If you want to be rich, the only important thing is to pick one path that works for you and stick with it for many years. The one common denominator all levels of wealth shared was time — it took many years to accumulate their wealth.

Source: https://www.businessinsider.com/3-ways-to-build-wealth-2018-7

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Richard Branson’s 3 Best Tips for Overcoming Self-Doubt

Richard Branson

Richard Branson

The Virgin founder and all-around adventurer’s best tricks for pushing past self-doubt.

As Richard Branson’s recent trip to space proves, the Virgin founder and all-around adventurer isn’t the kind of guy to let doubt stand in the way of an outlandish goal. But just because Branson personifies the swashbuckling, risk-taking entrepreneur, that doesn’t mean he never experiences self-doubt. 

Like his fellow space company founder Elon Musk, Branson confessed recently on LinkedIn that he, too, is human and is sometimes haunted by doubts. He just refuses to be stopped by them. 

So how does he overcome fear when it threatens to stand in the way of his outsize dreams? His first move, he writes, is to remind himself “of all the brilliant innovations and discoveries that would have come to nothing if their inventors had given in to their doubts.” His next is to try a handful of practice fear-busting techniques he graciously shares with readers. 

1. Talk it out.

Left in your head, doubts can metastasize or return in an endless loop of unproductive rumination. Rather than worry over the same fear over and over again, it’s better to let the air in with a little conversation and a fresh perspective.  

“It’s always a good idea to discuss any doubt you have with colleagues and friends, and to really listen to their feedback,” Branson advises. “If you feel more confident after these conversations, take a ‘screw it, let’s do it’ attitude and push your doubts to the side.” 

2. Examine your doubt.  

And what if your doubt lingers? Then maybe it’s time to listen to it. Sometimes doubt is there for a reason, Branson acknowledges, and the best way to deal with it is to actually solve whatever issue is causing you to worry. 

“Your doubts may signal a niggling problem that needs to be addressed. If you demand proof from your doubt, you’ll be able to either squash it or solve the problem. Either way, your dreams and ideas will be better for it,” Branson writes, recalling a time in the early days of Virgin Atlantic when a moment of doubt led to a business-saving course correction. 

3. Take a break. 

Like any good Brit, Branson’s final suggestion starts off with a suggestion to “get a cup of tea.” But don’t worry if you’re not a fan of hot steeped beverages. The point isn’t the cuppa, it’s the idea that sometimes the best solution for negative thoughts and tough obstacles is a little distance. 

“Whenever doubt starts to get the better of me, I find exercise really helps. I’ll get on my bike, play some tennis, or have some downtime with my family. This is often when my best ideas come to me as well!” Branson continues. 

He’s far from the only achiever to notice the magic powers of a change of scene, a little exercise, and some time out of doors. A host of thinkers from Charles Darwin to Steve Jobs to Albert Einstein have recommended a little hiking, sailing, or bike riding whenever you’re hung up on a problem or worry. 

Science shows nature reduces stress, exercise makes us smarter, and rhythmic activities that demand some but not all of our attention — like walking or shampooing your hair — can help shake out creative ideas. No wonder taking a break can actually be the fastest, best way to work your way around self-doubt. 

Source: www.inc.com/jessica-stillman/richard-branson-self-doubt-fear-confidence.html

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Win lose or draw

Win Lose or Draw

Win Lose or Draw
Win Lose or Draw

Win, Lose or Draw is an American television game show that aired from 1987 to 1990 in syndication and on NBC. It was taped at CBS Television City (one of the few non-CBS game shows to tape there), often in Studios 31, 33, and 43 at various times.[3] It was co-produced by Burt & Bert Productions (headed by Burt Reynolds and Bert Convy, the original host of the syndicated version) and Kline & Friends for Disney’s Buena Vista Television. It has also had two versions on The Disney Channel: Teen Win, Lose or Draw from 1989 to 1992, and a revived version known as Disney’s Win, Lose or Draw which aired in 2014.

The set for the original Win, Lose or Draw was modeled after Burt Reynolds’ living room.

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COVID -19: Fabric masks should have three layers of different material

10 JUN, 2020 – 04:06 

Roselyne Sachiti

Fearures, Health and Society Editor

The World Health Organisation (WHO) has published an updated guidance on the use of face masks for control of COVID-19.

WHO  wearing masks properly
WHO do’s and don’ts

In his opening remarks at a media briefing on Covid- 19 last Friday, WHO Director-General Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus said the guidance is based on evolving evidence, and provides updated advice on who should wear a mask, when it should be worn and what it should be made of.

He said WHO has developed this guidance through a careful review of all available evidence, and extensive consultation with international experts and civil society groups.

“I wish to be very clear that the guidance we are publishing today is an update of what we have been saying for months: that masks should only ever be used as part of a comprehensive strategy in the fight against COVID.

“Masks on their own will not protect you from COVID-19,” he emphasised.

He said the updated guidance contains new information on the composition of fabric masks, based on academic research requested by WHO.

“Based on this new research, WHO advises that fabric masks should consist of at least three layers of different material. Details of which materials we recommend for each layer are in the guidelines.”

According to the latest guidelines, cloth masks should consist of at least three layers of different materials: an inner layer being an absorbent material like cotton, a middle layer of non-woven materials such as polypropylene (for the filter) and an outer layer, which is a non- absorbent material such as a polyester or a polyester blend.

“Fabric cloths (e.g., nylon blends and 100 percent polyester) when folded into two layers, provides 2-5 times increased filtration efficiency compared to a single layer of the same cloth, and filtration efficiency increases 2-7 times if it is folded into 4 layers. Masks made of cotton handkerchiefs alone should consist of at least 4 layers, but have achieved only 13 percent filtration efficiency. Very porous materials, such as gauze, even with multiple layers will not provide sufficient

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These Three Things Need to Happen Before Stocks Bottom Out, Credit Suisse Says

By Callum KeownUpdated March 16, 2020 10:29 am ET / Original March 16, 2020 9:58 am ET

When will stocks reach the low and what will the recovery look like?

Workers wearing protective gear in South Korea.ASSOCIATED PRESS
Workers wearing protective gear in South Korea.ASSOCIATED PRESS

Credit Suisse said it needed to see three conditions required for a trough in global stocks:

1. Clear-cut fiscal easing in the U.S. — which happened late on Sunday;

2. A peak in daily infection rates

3. A trough in global purchasing managers indexes, which it said could happen in May.

In the severe acute respiratory syndrome crisis, markets bottomed out a week daily new infections hit a peak, the bank’s research analysts said.

“We expect a V-shaped recovery ultimately and would be buyers of equities on a one-year view; we believe markets will rise 15-20% over the next 12 months. 

“Historically when we look at exogenous supply-side shocks, markets tend to rise very rapidly from the trough (SARS, Kobe earthquake, Suez, 1987),” they said.

The analysts, led by Andrew Garthwaite, favored stocks in Asia (a commodity-importing region on top of the virus) relative to Europe. In a new realistic worst-case scenario, U.S. earnings would drop 20% and the S&P 500 would fall to 2,200 points, they added.

They also expected “massive” monetary and fiscal stimulus. “This should enable a V-shaped recovery that by the end of 2021 could make up for much of 2020’s lost growth,” they said.

Source: https://www.barrons.com/articles/these-three-things-need-to-happen-before-stocks-bottom-out-credit-suisse-says-51584367103

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Coronavirus can stay infectious for 3 days on surfaces. But it’s still okay to check your mail.

March 13, 2020 at 8:00 AM EDT

Excerpt: Scientists studying the novel coronavirus are quickly uncovering features that allow it to infect and sicken human beings. Every virus has a signature way of interacting with the world, and this one — SARS-CoV-2, which causes the disease covid-19 — is well-equipped to create a historic pandemic.

Corona virus covid-19
Corona virus covid-19

The coronavirus may take many days — up to 14 — before an infection flares into symptoms, and although most people recover without a serious illness, this is not a bug that comes and goes quickly. A serious case of covid-19 can last for weeks.

This coronavirus can establish itself in the upper respiratory tract, said Vincent Munster, chief of the Virus Ecology Section of Rocky Mountain Laboratories, a facility in Hamilton, Mont., that is part of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. That enables the virus to spread more easily through coughing and sneezing. Munster and his colleagues have been studying the novel coronavirus under laboratory conditions to better understand its viability outside a host organism — in the air and on surfaces.

Those experiments found that at least some coronavirus can potentially remain viable — capable of infecting a person — for up to 24 hours on cardboard and up to three days on plastic and stainless steel.

Source and to read more: The Washington Post at https://www.washingtonpost.com/health/coronavirus-can-stay-infectious-for-days-on-surfaces/2020/03/12/9b54a99e-6472-11ea-845d-e35b0234b136_story.html