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Physics has a law that explains everything. And it’s brought to you by the number three

Jamie Seidel: News Corp Australia Network

The rule of three has become something akin to a social law of gravity — as if the number is behind everything.

Three groups of experimentalists have independently observed a strange state of matter that forms from three particles of any type and at any scale, from practically infinitesimal to infinite.

Forget pairs. They’re old pat. And 42? We still don’t know the question.

Three rings to rule them all, and in the darkness bind them ... apologies  Lord Of The Rings purists.
Three rings to rule them all, and in the darkness bind them … apologies to Lord Of The Rings purists.

Comedians insist three is the best pattern to exploit perceptions and deliver punchlines; three features prominently in titles, such as The Three Little Pigs, Three Musketeers, Goldilocks and the Three Bears; even the Romans believed three was the ultimate number: “Omne trium perfectum” was their mantra — everything that comes in threes is perfect.

Now, it seems Mother Nature may also think in threes. Especially at the very edge of physics — quantum mechanics.

A Soviet nuclear physicist first proposed the idea back in the 1970s — and was met with derision.

For 45 years number-crunchers around the world have been attempting to topple Vitaly Efimov’s idea and prove his equations wrong.

Shih-Kuang Tung of the University of Chicago
Shih-Kuang Tung of the University of Chicago holding Borromean rings, which have often been used as a symbol of unity. If one ring is removed, all three fall apart.

They’ve failed; and his “outlandish” theory is now on the point of being proven.

Most importantly, Efimov felt that sets of three particles could arrange themselves in an infinite, layered pattern. What form these layers take helps determine the makeup of matter itself.

Jump forward four decades, and technological advances now allow his groups of three quantum particles to be studied and manipulated.

The quantum condition — now known as Efimov’s state — is visible only under supremely cold conditions. Matter, when chilled to a few billionths of a degree above Absolute Zero, does strange things …

If you want the technical details, read Quanta Magazine’s article which examines the recent research papers.

Continue reading Physics has a law that explains everything. And it’s brought to you by the number three
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These Three Things Need to Happen Before Stocks Bottom Out, Credit Suisse Says

By Callum KeownUpdated March 16, 2020 10:29 am ET / Original March 16, 2020 9:58 am ET

When will stocks reach the low and what will the recovery look like?

Workers wearing protective gear in South Korea.ASSOCIATED PRESS
Workers wearing protective gear in South Korea.ASSOCIATED PRESS

Credit Suisse said it needed to see three conditions required for a trough in global stocks:

1. Clear-cut fiscal easing in the U.S. — which happened late on Sunday;

2. A peak in daily infection rates

3. A trough in global purchasing managers indexes, which it said could happen in May.

In the severe acute respiratory syndrome crisis, markets bottomed out a week daily new infections hit a peak, the bank’s research analysts said.

“We expect a V-shaped recovery ultimately and would be buyers of equities on a one-year view; we believe markets will rise 15-20% over the next 12 months. 

“Historically when we look at exogenous supply-side shocks, markets tend to rise very rapidly from the trough (SARS, Kobe earthquake, Suez, 1987),” they said.

The analysts, led by Andrew Garthwaite, favored stocks in Asia (a commodity-importing region on top of the virus) relative to Europe. In a new realistic worst-case scenario, U.S. earnings would drop 20% and the S&P 500 would fall to 2,200 points, they added.

They also expected “massive” monetary and fiscal stimulus. “This should enable a V-shaped recovery that by the end of 2021 could make up for much of 2020’s lost growth,” they said.

Source: https://www.barrons.com/articles/these-three-things-need-to-happen-before-stocks-bottom-out-credit-suisse-says-51584367103

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Coronavirus can stay infectious for 3 days on surfaces. But it’s still okay to check your mail.

March 13, 2020 at 8:00 AM EDT

Excerpt: Scientists studying the novel coronavirus are quickly uncovering features that allow it to infect and sicken human beings. Every virus has a signature way of interacting with the world, and this one — SARS-CoV-2, which causes the disease covid-19 — is well-equipped to create a historic pandemic.

Corona virus covid-19
Corona virus covid-19

The coronavirus may take many days — up to 14 — before an infection flares into symptoms, and although most people recover without a serious illness, this is not a bug that comes and goes quickly. A serious case of covid-19 can last for weeks.

This coronavirus can establish itself in the upper respiratory tract, said Vincent Munster, chief of the Virus Ecology Section of Rocky Mountain Laboratories, a facility in Hamilton, Mont., that is part of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. That enables the virus to spread more easily through coughing and sneezing. Munster and his colleagues have been studying the novel coronavirus under laboratory conditions to better understand its viability outside a host organism — in the air and on surfaces.

Those experiments found that at least some coronavirus can potentially remain viable — capable of infecting a person — for up to 24 hours on cardboard and up to three days on plastic and stainless steel.

Source and to read more: The Washington Post at https://www.washingtonpost.com/health/coronavirus-can-stay-infectious-for-days-on-surfaces/2020/03/12/9b54a99e-6472-11ea-845d-e35b0234b136_story.html


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Voxel

Voxel
Voxel – Wikipedia

A three dimensional pixel. A hologram compresses 3D information onto a 2D representation. Two different representations of reality. The world is a pixelated world, not a voxelated world. It’s a hologram.

We know our cosmic horizon of the observable universe is at least 1/1000th in volume of the size of the known universe through observation.

In his words, The universe is at least 1000 times larger in volume than the region what we can ever see. The rest is beyond our horizon. This is like an event horizon of a black hole, but it is a cosmic horizon.

What is the meaning of the stuff we can never detect?

How can we confirm it by real observation?

What is the proper description of a world that is bigger than the cosmic horizon? 

Is our cosmic horizon a two-dimensional scrambled hologram of all that lies beyond it?

Leonard Susskind
Leonard Susskind

Leonard Susskind on The World As Hologram.

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Rule of Thirds – Top 5 Tips for Photographers

What differentiates an amateur photographer and a professional is not the mastery of technical details. A good photographer knows how to compose an image well. There are many rules of composition; we will study one of the most commonly used ones. And that composition rule is called the rule of thirds.

Rule of Thirds

The rule of thirds means that you have to place your subject at any one-third of the image frame. Most of the cameras these days have an option to display various types of grids. The grid that is the most common is the 3*3 grid. So, the points where the lines meet is the point where your subjects should be placed. You would have to consider other factors along with it. Placing an image randomly on any of the points will not make an image great. Give it some thought on which point would make the most sense.

Here are some tips for you to learn and master this rule.

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Big Oh(O) Big Theta(Θ) Big Omega(Ω)

big O Notation

Analysis of Algorithms

Big O notation is a mathematical notation that describes the limiting behavior of a function when the argument tends towards a particular value or infinity. It is a member of a family of notations invented by Paul Bachmann, Edmund Landau, and others, collectively called Bachmann–Landau notation or asymptotic notation.

Big Oh Running Time Complexity
Big Oh Running Time Complexity

Two simple concepts separate properties of an algorithm itself from properties of a particular computer, operating system, programming language, and compiler used for its implementation. The concepts, briefly outlined earlier, are as follows:

The input data size, or the number n of individual data items in a single data instance to be processed when solving a given problem. Obviously, how to measure the data size depends on the problem: n means the number of items to sort (in sorting applications), number of nodes (vertices) or arcs (edges) in graph algorithms, number of picture elements (pixels) in image processing, length of a character string in text processing, and so on.

The number of elementary operations taken by a particular algorithm, or its running time. We assume it is a function f(n) of the input data size n. The function depends on the elementary operations chosen to build the algorithm.

Algorithms are analyzed under the following assumption: if the running time of an algorithm as a function of n differs only by a constant factor from the running time for another algorithm, then the two algorithms have essentially the same time complexity. Functions that measure running time, T(n), have nonnegative values
because time is nonnegative, T(n) ≥ 0. The integer argument n (data size) is also nonnegative.

Definition 1 (Big Oh)

Big Oh Rank Meaning
Big Oh Rank Meaning

Let f(n) and g(n) be nonnegative-valued functions defined on nonnegative integers n. Then g(n)is O(f(n)) (read “g(n)is Big Oh of f(n)”) iff there exists a positive real constant c and a positive integer n0 such that g(n) ≤ c f(n) for all n > n0.

Note. We use the notation “iff ” as an abbreviation of “if and only if”.

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QPR – Three Steps Anyone Can Take to Save a Life

What is QPR?

QPR logo
QPR

QPR stands for Question, Persuade and Refer — three simple steps anyone can learn to help save a life from suicide.

Our Mission

To save lives and reduce suicidal behaviors by providing innovative, practical and proven suicide prevention training. We believe that quality education empowers all people, regardless of their background, to make a positive difference in the life of someone they know.

What does QPR mean?

QPR stands for Question, Persuade, and Refer — the 3 simple steps anyone can learn to help save a life from suicide.

Just as people trained in CPR and the Heimlich Maneuver help save thousands of lives each year, people trained in QPR learn how to recognize the warning signs of a suicide crisis and how to question, persuade, and refer someone to help. Each year thousands of Americans, like you, are saying “Yes” to saving the life of a friend, colleague, sibling, or neighbor.

QPR can be learned in our Gatekeeper course in as little as one hour.

What is a Gatekeeper?

According to the Surgeon General’s National Strategy for Suicide Prevention (2001), a gatekeeper is someone in a position to recognize a crisis and the warning signs that someone may be contemplating suicide.

Gatekeepers can be anyone, but include parents, friends, neighbors, teachers, ministers, doctors, nurses, office supervisors, squad leaders, foremen, police officers, advisors, caseworkers, firefighters, and many others who are strategically positioned to recognize and refer someone at risk of suicide.

Read more-Partial Source: https://qprinstitute.com/about-qpr

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NPK Ratio

flower garden

The N-P-K ratio is the percentage by volume of nitrogen (chemical symbol N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in fertilizer. A 16-16-16 fertilizer, for example, contains 16% nitrogen, 16% phosphorus, and 16% potassium.

NPK ratio
NPK ratio

How is NPK Calculated?

To calculate the pounds of nitrogen in a bag of fertilizer, multiply the weight of the bag by the percent nitrogen (this is the first number in the N-P-K designation on the front of the bag). Then divide the pounds of nitrogen by the area the bag states it will cover to get the pounds of nitrogen per 1,000 sq. ft.

Roles of NPK

The first number of the ratio indicates the amount of nitrogen in the fertilizer. Nitrogen serves a few different roles but its primary benefit to grass is to help produce lush, green leaves. The second element is phosphorus, which is focused on more of the downward growth and fuels important developments such as root growth. The final nutrient represented in the ratio is potassium. This particular nutrient focuses more on resistance. If you already have an established lawn that’s starting to suffer from stress or diseases then the application of potassium is crucial to the health of the grass.

n-p-k
n-p-k

What’s the Best Ratio?

The NPK ratio represents is the percentage of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) in the fertilizer. So how do you what’s best for what ratio? Here are some basic rules to follow. If you are starting a new lawn then get lawn fertilizer that has a higher percentage of phosphorus and potassium. At this stage, it’s important to focus on root development and disease resistance.

If you are installing a new layer of sod then apply a similar ratio to what you would use for new lawns. Although new sod does have established grass, the roots themselves have been shaved off so it is vital to up the amount of phosphorus in the soil for root development purposes.

Finally, if you are well into the gardening season and have an established lawn then focus on using a fertilizer that has a higher composition of nitrogen. Before Using Lawn Fertilizer perform a test to determine the amount of nutrients that already exist in the soil. This can be done on your own through the use of NPK soil test kit.

Partial Source: http://www.jgilorganic.com/npk-lawn-care/

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Three ways to insert CSS – cascading style sheets

cascading style sheets

CSS How To…


When a browser reads a style sheet, it will format the HTML document according to the information in the style sheet.

working with CSS
working with CSS

Three Ways to Insert CSS

There are three ways of inserting a style sheet:

  • External style sheet
  • Internal style sheet
  • Inline style

External Style Sheet

With an external style sheet, you can change the look of an entire website by changing just one file!

Each page must include a reference to the external style sheet file inside the <link> element. The <link> element goes inside the <head> section:

Example

<head>
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="mystyle.css">
</head>
Try it Yourself »

An external style sheet can be written in any text editor. The file should not contain any html tags. The style sheet file must be saved with a .css extension.

Here is how the “mystyle.css” looks:

body {
  background-color: lightblue;
}

h1 {
  color: navy;
  margin-left: 20px;
}

Note: Do not add a space between the property value and the unit (such as margin-left: 20 px;). The correct way is: margin-left: 20px;


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Content Delivery Network (CDN)

A content delivery network or content distribution network (CDN) is a geographically distributed network of proxy servers and their data centers. The goal is to provide high availability and high performance by distributing the service spatially relative to end-users. CDNs serve a large portion of the Internet content today, including web objects (text, graphics and scripts), downloadable objects (media files, software, documents), applications (e-commerce, portals), live streaming media, on-demand streaming media, and social media sites.

Global content delivery network
Global content delivery network

Google Hosted Libraries

The Google Hosted Libraries is a stable, reliable, high-speed, globally available content distribution network for the most popular, open-source JavaScript libraries.

Google works directly with the key stakeholders for each library effort and accepts the latest versions as they are released.

Libraries

To load a hosted library, copy and paste the HTML snippet for that library (shown below) in your web page. For instance, to load jQuery, embed the 

<script src=”https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/jquery/3.4.0/jquery.min.js“></script>

snippet in your web page.

We recommend that you load libraries from the CDN via HTTPS, even if your own website only uses HTTP. Nowadays, performance is fast, and caching works just the same. The CDN’s files are served with CORSand Timing-Allow headers and allowed to be cached for 1 year.

Global content delivery network
Global content delivery network

Best CDN Providers To Speed Up A Website

  • Cloudflare. Cloudflare is a highly reliable CDN service provider for protecting your website and boosting its performance even under Free plans. … 
  • MaxCDN. … 
  • Cachefly. … 
  • Rackspace. … 
  • Key CDN. … 
  • Akamai. … 
  • Amazon CloudFront. … 
  • jsDelivr.
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Fresh air with three plants – How to grow fresh air

With its air-filtering plants and sustainable architecture, Kamal Meattle’s office park in New Delhi is a model of green business. Meattle himself is a longtime activist for cleaning up India’s air.

– Kamal Meattle

Researcher Kamal Meattle shows how an arrangement of three common houseplants, used in specific spots in a home or office building, can result in measurably cleaner indoor air.

How to grow fresh air Kamal Meattle

Areca Palm, Mother-in-law’s Tongue, Money Plant
Areca Palm, Mother-in-law’s Tongue, Money Plant

Source: www.ted.com/talks/kamal_meattle_on_how_to_grow_your_own_fresh_air

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Three ways to see an atom

Atom

A remarkable photo of a single atom trapped by electric fields has just been awarded the top prize in a well-known science photography competition. The photo is titled “Single Atom in an Ion Trap” and was shot by David Nadlinger of the University of Oxford
A remarkable photo of a single atom trapped by electric fields has just been awarded the top prize in a well-known science photography competition. The photo is titled “Single Atom in an Ion Trap” and was shot by David Nadlinger of the University of Oxford.

If there is no way in the world to see an atom, then how do we know that the atom is made of protons, electrons, neutrons, the nucleus and the electron cloud?

There are three ways that scientists have proved that these sub-atomic particles exist. They are direct observation, indirect observation or inferred presence and predictions from theory or conjecture.

Atomic model
Atomic model

Scientists in the 1800’s were able to infer a lot about the sub-atomic world from The Periodic Table of Elements by Mendeleyev gave scientists two very important things. The regularity of the table and the observed combinations of chemical compounds prompted some scientists to infer that atoms had regular repeating properties and that maybe they had similar structures.

 

J.J. Thompson
J.J. Thompson

Other scientists studying the discharge effects of electricity in gasses made some direct discoveries. J.J. Thompson was the first to observe and understand the small particles called electrons. These were called cathode rays because they came from the cathode, or negative electrode, of these discharge tubes. It was quickly learned that electrons could be formed into beams and manipulated into images that would ultimately become television. Electrons could also produce something else. Roentgen discovered X-rays in 1895. His discovery was a byproduct of studying electrons. Protons could also be observed directly as well as ions as “anode” rays. These positive particles made up the other half of the atomic world that the chemists had already worked out. The chemists had measured the mass or weight of the elements. The periodic chart and chemical properties proved that there was an atomic number also. This atomic number was eventually identified as the charge of the nucleus or the number of electrons surrounding an atom which is almost always found in a neutral, or balanced, state.

Ernest Rutherford
Ernest Rutherford

Rutherford proved in 1911, that there was a nucleus. He did this directly by shooting alpha particles at other atoms, like gold, and observing that sometimes they bounced back the way they came. There was no way this could be explained by the current picture of the atom which was thought to be a homogeneous mix. Rutherford proved directly by scattering experiments that there was something heavy and solid at the center. The nucleus was discovered. For about 20 years the nucleus was thought to consist of a number of protons to equal the atomic weight and some electrons to reduce the charge so the atomic number came out right. This was very unsettling to many scientists. There were predictions and conjectures that something was missing.

James Chadwick
James Chadwick

In 1932 Chadwick found that a heavy neutral particle was emitted by some radioactive atoms. This particle was about the same mass as a proton, but it had a no electric charge. This was the “missing piece” (famous last words). The nucleus could now be much better explained by using neutrons and protons to make up the atomic weight and atomic number. This made much better sense of the atomic world. There were now electrons equal to the atomic number surrounding the nucleus made up of neutrons and protons.

Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen raggi X
Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen raggi X

Mr. Roentgen’s x-rays allowed scientists to measure the size of the atom. The x-rays were small enough to discern the atomic clouds. This was done by scattering x-rays from atoms and measuring their size just as Rutherford had done earlier by hitting atoms with other nuclei starting with alpha particles.

Cyclotron - 1930 particle accelerator
Cyclotron – 1930 particle accelerator

The 1930’s were also the time when the first practical particle accelerators were invented and used. These early machines made beams of protons. These beams could be used to measure the size of the atomic nucleus. And the search goes on today. Scientists are still filling in the missing pieces in the elementary particle world. Where will it end? Around about 1890, scientists were lamenting the death of physics and pondering a life reduced to measuring the next decimal point! Discoveries made in the 1890’s proved that the surface had only been scratched.

Carbon Atomic Model
Carbon Atomic Model

Each decade of the 1900’s has seen the frontier pushed to smaller and smaller objects. The explosion of knowledge has not slowed down and as each threshold has been passed the amount of new science seems to be greater even as we probe to smaller dimensions. Current theories (if correct) imply that there is even more below the next horizon awaiting discovery

Text Author: Paul Brindza, Experimental Hall A Design Leader

Source: https://education.jlab.org/qa/history_04.html