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Three types of hypotheses

* Simple hypothesis

* Complex hypothesis

* Null hypothesis

What is a hypothesis

A hypothesis states your predictions about what your research will find. It is a tentative answer to your research question that has not yet been tested. For some research projects, you might have to write several hypotheses that address different aspects of your research question.

A hypothesis is not just a guess — it should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations and statistical analysis of data).

Variables in hypotheses

Hypotheses propose a relationship between two or more variables. An independent variable is something the researcher changes or controls. A dependent variable is something the researcher observes and measures.

Daily apple consumption leads to fewer doctor’s visits.

In this example, the independent variable is apple consumption — the assumed cause. The dependent variable is the frequency of doctor’s visits — the assumed effect.

Three steps to hypothesis testing

  • State the null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis
  • Decide on test static and critical value
  • Compute p-value. If P-value is less than the critical value reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis

Simple hypothesis

Simple hypotheses are ones which give probabilities to potential observations. The contrast here is with complex hypotheses, also known as models, which are sets of simple hypotheses such that knowing that some member of the set is true (but not which) is insufficient to specify probabilities of data points.

Normal curve​
Simple hypothesis – Bell Curve

Complex hypothesis

Complex hypothesis is that one in which there are multiple dependent as well as independent variables. Example: Global warming causes icebergs to melt which in turn causes major changes in weather patterns.

Complex hypothesis
Complex hypothesis

Null hypothesis

A null hypothesis is a hypothesis that says there is no statistical significance between the two variables in the hypothesis. … For example, a null hypothesis would be something like this: There is no statistically significant relationship between the type of water I feed the flowers and growth of the flowers.

null hypothesis
Null hypothesis

Create a Null Hypothesis

Depending on your study, you may need to perform some statistical analysis on the data you collect. When forming your hypothesis statement using the scientific method, it’s important to know the difference between a null hypothesis vs. the alternative hypothesis, and how to create a null hypothesis. 

  • A null hypothesis, often denoted as H0, posits that there is no apparent difference or that there is no evidence to support a difference. Using the motivation example above, the null hypothesis would be that sleep hours have no effect on motivation.
  • An alternative hypothesis, often denoted as H1, states that there is a statistically significant difference, or there is evidence to support such a difference. Going back to the same carrot example, the alternative hypothesis is that a person getting six hours of sleep has less motivation than someone getting eight hours of sleep.
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Three types of Breathing

Change Your Breath, Change Your Life | Lucas Rockwood | TEDxBarcelona
Change Your Breath, Change Your Life | Lucas Rockwood | TEDxBarcelona

We do it as long as we live but mostly aren’t aware
of it: breathing. In his talk Lucas breaks down the
fundamentals of yoga breathing in a way that you
can easily remember and apply to your practice.
Lucas shows us how three breathing practices
water, whiskey, or coffee – can be used as a tool and help us to overcome any situation.

With a formal yoga training background in Hot
Yoga, Ashtanga Yoga, Gravity Yoga, and the Yoga
Trapeze®, Lucas has studied with some of the
most well-respected teachers on the planet. His
most influential teachers (all of whom he studied
with personally) include Sri K. Pattabhi Jois, Paul
Dallaghan, Alex Medin, Gabriel Cousens MD, and
SN Goenka.

Lucas founded Absolute Yoga Academy in 2006,
one of the top 10 yoga teacher training schools in
the world with 2,000 certified teachers (and
counting) and courses in Thailand, Holland, the
United Kingdom, and the Philippines.

In 2013, Lucas founded YOGABODY Fitness, a
revolutionary new yoga studio business model
that pays teachers a living wage and demystifies
yoga by making the mind-body healing benefits of
the practice accessible to everyone.

In search of nutritional products designed
specifically for achy yoga students’ bodies, Lucas
worked with senior nutritional formulator Paul
Gaylon and founded YOGABODY Naturals in the
back of his yoga studio a year later. The company
has gone from strength to strength and is now a
world-renowned nutrition, education, and
publishing organization serving 81 countries.

A foodie at heart, Lucas was a vegan chef and
owned and operated health food restaurants prior
to diving deep into the yoga world. He is also a
highly acclaimed writer, radio show host, TV
personality, business consultant, weight loss
expert, and health coach. This talk was given at a
TEDx event using the TED conference format but
independently organized by a local community.

Change Your Breath, Change Your Life | Lucas
Rockwood | TEDxBarcelona

Learn more at https://www.ted.com/tedx

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Cognitive Ease

Cognitive ease or fluency is the measure of how easy it is for our brains to process information. … The Cognitive ease principle reveals that when people have to switch to the second system of thinking, causing cognitive strain, they become more vigilant and suspicious.

Frequent repetition can be enough to convince people to believe things that are not true because familiarity generates a sense of cognitive ease. Called the mere-exposure effect, advertisers make use of it, but they aren’t the only ones. Information that is easy to understand also gives us a sense of cognitive ease.

Humans tend to avoid stressful and demanding cognitive strain, often making them vulnerable to many biases. This “laziness” and desire for cognitive ease often invites individuals to a world of irrationality where the decisions made can be detrimental.

Cognitive Ease – Veritasium
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Cantor’s threefold division of infinity

Excerpts from Infinity and the Mind

Rudy Rucker
Infinity and the mind by Rudy Rucker
Infinity and the Mind

… This threefold division [of infinity] is due to Cantor, who, in the following passage, distinguishes between the:

  • Absolute Infinite
  • Physical infinities
  • Mathematical infinities

The actual infinite arises in three contexts: first when it is realized in the most complete form, in a fully indepen dent other-worldly being, in Deo, where I call it the Absolute Infinite or simply Absolute; second when it occurs in the contingent, created world; third when the mind grasps it in abstracto as a mathematical magnitude, number, or order type. I wish to make a sharp contrast between the Absolute and what I call the Transfinite, that is, the actual infinities of the last two sorts, which are clearly limited, subject to further increase, and thus related to the finite,

PHYSICAL INFINITIES

There are three ways in which our world appears to be un bounded and thus, perhaps, infinite. It seems that time cannot end. It seems that space cannot end. And it seems that any interval of space or time can be divided and subdivided endlessly. We will consider these three apparent physical infinities in three subsections.

Temporal Infinities

One of the chief consequences of Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity is that it is space-time that is fundamental, not isolated space which evolves as time passes. I will not argue this point in detail here, but let me repeat that on the basis of modern physical theory we have every reason to think of the passage of time as an illusion. Past, present, and future all exist together in space-time.

So the question of the infinitude of time is not one that is to be dodged by denying that time can be treated as a fixed dimension such as space. The question still remains: is time infinite? If we take the entire space-time of our universe, is the time dimension infinitely extended or not?

Möbius strip ​
Möbius strip

Spatial Infinities

Whether or not our space is actually infinite is a question that could conceivably be resolved in the next few decades. Assuming that Einstein’s theory of gravitation is correct, there are basically two types of universe: i) a hyperspherical (closed and
unbounded) space that expands, and then contracts back to a point; ii) an infinite space that expands forever. It is my guess that case i) will come to be most widely accepted, if only because the notion of an actually infinite space extending out in every direction is so unsettling.

The fate of the universe in case i) is certainly more interesting, since such a universe collapses back to an infinitely dense space-time singularity that may serve as the seed for a whole new universe. In case il), on the other hand, we simply have cooling and dying suns drifting further and further apart in an utterly empty black immensity … and in the end there are only ashes and cinders in an absolute and eternal night.

The question we are concerned with here is whether or not space is infinitely large. There seem to be three options: i) There is some level n for which -dimensional space is real and infinitely extended. The situation where our three-dimensional space is infinitely large falls under this case. ii). There is some n such that there is only one n-dimensional space. This space is to be finite and unbounded, and there is to be no reality to n + 1 dimensional space.

The situation where our three-dimensional space is finite and unbounded, and the reality of four-dimensional space denied, falls under this case. iii). There are real spaces of every dimension, and each of these spaces is finite and unbounded. In this case we either have an infinite number of universes, duoverses, triverses, etc., or we reach a level after which there is only one n-verse for each n.

Read more in his book Infinity and the Mind

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Three geometries – Euclidean, Hyperbolic, Elliptical

Three geometries - Euclidean, Hyperbolic, Elliptical
Three geometries – Euclidean, Hyperbolic, Elliptical

There are precisely three different classes of three-dimensional constant-curvature geometry: Euclidean, hyperbolic and elliptic geometry. The three geometries are all built on the same first four axioms, but each has a unique version of the fifth axiom, also known as the parallel postulate. The 1868 Essay on an Interpretation of Non-Euclidean Geometry by Eugenio Beltrami (1835 – 1900) proved the logical consistency of the two Non-Euclidean geometries, hyperbolic and elliptical.

The parallel postulate is as follows for the corresponding geometries.

Euclidean geometry: Playfair’s version: “Given a line l and a point P not on l, there exists a unique line m through P that is parallel to l.” Euclid’s version: “Suppose that a line l meets two other lines m and nso that the sum of the interior angles on one side of lis less than 180°. Then m and n intersect in a point on that side of l.” These two versions are equivalent; though Playfair’s may be easier to conceive, Euclid’s is often useful for proofs.

Hyperbolic geometry: Given an arbitrary infinite line l and any point P not on l, there exist two or more distinct lines which pass through P and are parallel to l.

Elliptic geometry: Given an arbitrary infinite line land any point P not on l, there does not exist a line which passes through P and is parallel to l.

Source and more info: https://en.m.wikibooks.org/wiki/Geometry/Hyperbolic_and_Elliptic_Geometry

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Trifid Nebula

Trifid Nebula

In the Center of the Trifid Nebula Image Credit: Subaru Telescope (NAOJ), Hubble Space Telescope, Martin Pugh; Processing: Robert Gendler

What’s happening at the center of the Trifid Nebula? Three prominent dust lanes that give the Trifid its name all come together. Mountains of opaque dust appear near the bottom, while other dark filaments of dust are visible threaded throughout the nebula. A single massive star visible near the center causes much of the Trifid’s glow. The Trifid, cataloged as M20, is only about 300,000 years old, making it among the youngest emission nebulas known. The star forming nebula lies about 9,000 light years away toward the constellation of the Archer (Sagittarius). The region pictured here spans about 10 light years. The featured image is a composite with luminance taken from an image by the 8.2-m ground-based Subaru Telescope, detail provided by the 2.4-m orbiting Hubble Space Telescope, color data provided by Martin Pugh and image

Trifid Nebula
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The comet, the whale and the hockey stick

Comet, whale, hockey stick

The Comet, the Whale, and the Hockey Stick

Image Credit & Copyright: Grand Mesa Observatory, Terry Hancock / Tom

Masterson

Closest to the Sun on March 1, and closest to planet Earth on April 23, this Comet ATLAS (C/2020 R4) shows a faint greenish coma and short tail in this pretty, telescopic field of view. Captured at its position on May 5, the comet was within the boundaries of northern constellation Canes Venatici (the Hunting Dogs), and near the line-of-sight to intriguing background galaxies popularly known as the Whale and the Hockey Stick. Cetacean in appearance but Milky Way sized, NGC 4631 is a spiral galaxy seen edge-on at the top right, some 25 million light-years away. NGC 4656/7 sports the bent-stick shape of interacting galaxies below and left of NGC 4631.

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Physics has a law that explains everything. And it’s brought to you by the number three

Jamie Seidel: News Corp Australia Network

The rule of three has become something akin to a social law of gravity — as if the number is behind everything.

Three groups of experimentalists have independently observed a strange state of matter that forms from three particles of any type and at any scale, from practically infinitesimal to infinite.

Forget pairs. They’re old pat. And 42? We still don’t know the question.

Three rings to rule them all, and in the darkness bind them ... apologies  Lord Of The Rings purists.
Three rings to rule them all, and in the darkness bind them … apologies to Lord Of The Rings purists.

Comedians insist three is the best pattern to exploit perceptions and deliver punchlines; three features prominently in titles, such as The Three Little Pigs, Three Musketeers, Goldilocks and the Three Bears; even the Romans believed three was the ultimate number: “Omne trium perfectum” was their mantra — everything that comes in threes is perfect.

Now, it seems Mother Nature may also think in threes. Especially at the very edge of physics — quantum mechanics.

A Soviet nuclear physicist first proposed the idea back in the 1970s — and was met with derision.

For 45 years number-crunchers around the world have been attempting to topple Vitaly Efimov’s idea and prove his equations wrong.

Shih-Kuang Tung of the University of Chicago
Shih-Kuang Tung of the University of Chicago holding Borromean rings, which have often been used as a symbol of unity. If one ring is removed, all three fall apart.

They’ve failed; and his “outlandish” theory is now on the point of being proven.

Most importantly, Efimov felt that sets of three particles could arrange themselves in an infinite, layered pattern. What form these layers take helps determine the makeup of matter itself.

Jump forward four decades, and technological advances now allow his groups of three quantum particles to be studied and manipulated.

The quantum condition — now known as Efimov’s state — is visible only under supremely cold conditions. Matter, when chilled to a few billionths of a degree above Absolute Zero, does strange things …

If you want the technical details, read Quanta Magazine’s article which examines the recent research papers.

Continue reading Physics has a law that explains everything. And it’s brought to you by the number three
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These Three Things Need to Happen Before Stocks Bottom Out, Credit Suisse Says

By Callum KeownUpdated March 16, 2020 10:29 am ET / Original March 16, 2020 9:58 am ET

When will stocks reach the low and what will the recovery look like?

Workers wearing protective gear in South Korea.ASSOCIATED PRESS
Workers wearing protective gear in South Korea.ASSOCIATED PRESS

Credit Suisse said it needed to see three conditions required for a trough in global stocks:

1. Clear-cut fiscal easing in the U.S. — which happened late on Sunday;

2. A peak in daily infection rates

3. A trough in global purchasing managers indexes, which it said could happen in May.

In the severe acute respiratory syndrome crisis, markets bottomed out a week daily new infections hit a peak, the bank’s research analysts said.

“We expect a V-shaped recovery ultimately and would be buyers of equities on a one-year view; we believe markets will rise 15-20% over the next 12 months. 

“Historically when we look at exogenous supply-side shocks, markets tend to rise very rapidly from the trough (SARS, Kobe earthquake, Suez, 1987),” they said.

The analysts, led by Andrew Garthwaite, favored stocks in Asia (a commodity-importing region on top of the virus) relative to Europe. In a new realistic worst-case scenario, U.S. earnings would drop 20% and the S&P 500 would fall to 2,200 points, they added.

They also expected “massive” monetary and fiscal stimulus. “This should enable a V-shaped recovery that by the end of 2021 could make up for much of 2020’s lost growth,” they said.

Source: https://www.barrons.com/articles/these-three-things-need-to-happen-before-stocks-bottom-out-credit-suisse-says-51584367103

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Coronavirus can stay infectious for 3 days on surfaces. But it’s still okay to check your mail.

March 13, 2020 at 8:00 AM EDT

Excerpt: Scientists studying the novel coronavirus are quickly uncovering features that allow it to infect and sicken human beings. Every virus has a signature way of interacting with the world, and this one — SARS-CoV-2, which causes the disease covid-19 — is well-equipped to create a historic pandemic.

Corona virus covid-19
Corona virus covid-19

The coronavirus may take many days — up to 14 — before an infection flares into symptoms, and although most people recover without a serious illness, this is not a bug that comes and goes quickly. A serious case of covid-19 can last for weeks.

This coronavirus can establish itself in the upper respiratory tract, said Vincent Munster, chief of the Virus Ecology Section of Rocky Mountain Laboratories, a facility in Hamilton, Mont., that is part of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. That enables the virus to spread more easily through coughing and sneezing. Munster and his colleagues have been studying the novel coronavirus under laboratory conditions to better understand its viability outside a host organism — in the air and on surfaces.

Those experiments found that at least some coronavirus can potentially remain viable — capable of infecting a person — for up to 24 hours on cardboard and up to three days on plastic and stainless steel.

Source and to read more: The Washington Post at https://www.washingtonpost.com/health/coronavirus-can-stay-infectious-for-days-on-surfaces/2020/03/12/9b54a99e-6472-11ea-845d-e35b0234b136_story.html


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Voxel

Voxel
Voxel – Wikipedia

A three dimensional pixel. A hologram compresses 3D information onto a 2D representation. Two different representations of reality. The world is a pixelated world, not a voxelated world. It’s a hologram.

We know our cosmic horizon of the observable universe is at least 1/1000th in volume of the size of the known universe through observation.

In his words, The universe is at least 1000 times larger in volume than the region what we can ever see. The rest is beyond our horizon. This is like an event horizon of a black hole, but it is a cosmic horizon.

What is the meaning of the stuff we can never detect?

How can we confirm it by real observation?

What is the proper description of a world that is bigger than the cosmic horizon? 

Is our cosmic horizon a two-dimensional scrambled hologram of all that lies beyond it?

Leonard Susskind
Leonard Susskind

Leonard Susskind on The World As Hologram.

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Rule of Thirds – Top 5 Tips for Photographers

What differentiates an amateur photographer and a professional is not the mastery of technical details. A good photographer knows how to compose an image well. There are many rules of composition; we will study one of the most commonly used ones. And that composition rule is called the rule of thirds.

Rule of Thirds

The rule of thirds means that you have to place your subject at any one-third of the image frame. Most of the cameras these days have an option to display various types of grids. The grid that is the most common is the 3*3 grid. So, the points where the lines meet is the point where your subjects should be placed. You would have to consider other factors along with it. Placing an image randomly on any of the points will not make an image great. Give it some thought on which point would make the most sense.

Here are some tips for you to learn and master this rule.

Continue reading Rule of Thirds – Top 5 Tips for Photographers