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Orchestrated Objective Reduction theory (Orch OR)

  1. Quantum Consciousness:
  • The Orch OR suggests that consciousness is a quantum process facilitated by microtubules in the brain’s nerve cells.
  • Microtubules are protein-based structures forming part of the cell’s cytoskeleton.
  • According to this theory, consciousness is akin to a quantum wave that passes through these microtubules.
  • Like any quantum wave, it exhibits properties such as superposition (existing in multiple states simultaneously) and entanglement (connection between particles even when far apart).
  1. Universal Connection:
  • Penrose and Hameroff propose that our consciousness can connect or entangle with quantum particles outside our brain, theoretically spanning the entire universe.
  • However, other scientists have raised objections. Efforts to recreate quantum coherence (keeping particles in a wave state) only succeed in very cold, controlled environments.
  • The brain, being warm, wet, and dynamic, doesn’t fit these conditions, leading to skepticism about consciousness remaining in superposition.
  1. Criticism and Challenges:
  • Orch OR has faced criticism from mathematicians, philosophers, and scientists.
  • Key points of contention include Penrose’s interpretation of Gödel’s theorem, the link between non-computability and quantum events, and the brain’s unsuitability for hosting the required quantum phenomena due to its warm and noisy nature.

In summary, Orch OR offers an intriguing perspective on consciousness, suggesting that it emerges from quantum processes within our neurons and may connect with the universe at large¹²³⁴. However, it remains a topic of ongoing debate and exploration in the scientific community. 🌟

Source: Conversation with Bing, 4/23/2024
(1) Orchestrated objective reduction – Wikipedia.
(2) How quantum brain biology can rescue conscious free will.
(3) 14 Orch OR and the Quantum Biology of Consciousness – Oxford Academic.

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Tricuspid Heart Valve


There is only one place in the human body with three duplicate heart valves, called the tricuspid valve. The valves of the heart are structures which ensure blood flows in only one direction. They are composed of connective tissue and endocardium (the inner layer of the heart).

There are four valves of the heart, which are divided into two categories:

  • Atrioventricular valves: The tricuspid valve and mitral (bicuspid) valve. They are located between the atria and corresponding ventricle.
  • Semilunar valves: The pulmonary valve and aortic valve. They are located between the ventricles and their corresponding artery and regulate the flow of blood leaving the heart.

What does the tricuspid valve do?

The heart pumps blood in a specific route through four chambers (two atria and two ventricles). Every time your heart beats, the atria receive oxygen-poor blood from the body. And the ventricles contract (squeeze) to pump blood out.

As the heart pumps, valves open and close to allow blood to move from one area of the heart to another. The valves help ensure that blood flows at the right time and in the correct direction.

The tricuspid valve ensures that blood flows from the right atrium to the right ventricle. It also prevents blood from flowing backward between those two chambers. When the right atrium fills, the tricuspid valve opens, letting blood into the right ventricle. Then the right ventricle contracts to send blood to the lungs. The tricuspid valve closes tightly so that blood does not go backward into the right atrium.

By DrJanaOfficial – Official Website, Support, CC BY-SA 4.0,

What is the tricuspid valve made of?

The tricuspid valve is made of three thin but strong flaps of tissue. They’re called leaflets or cusps. The leaflets are named by their positions: anterior, posterior and septal. They attach to the papillary muscles of the ventricle with thin, strong cords called chordae tendineae.

With every heartbeat, those leaflets open and close. The sounds of the heart valves opening and closing are the sounds you hear in a heartbeat.

Does the heartbeat in 3/4 time?

Yes, the heart is closer to 3/4 time than 4/4 time. The waltz is in perfect synch with the heartbeat. Any music slower than the heartbeat tends to relax us, and any music faster than the heartbeat excites.

RadioLab | Our Little Stupid Bodies

There was a lively discussion about how body parts evolved on January 12, 2024 Episode: Our Little Stupid Bodies, question 4. Hear the recording and read the transcript below (permission to post from RadioLab).

Recording | Our Little Stupid Bodies

Continue reading Tricuspid Heart Valve
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4 Tips for Teaching Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

charming girl with down syndrome playing with easter colored eggs

The rate of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder, is up not only in the United States but worldwide. New research published in Autism Research reveals that 100 in 10,000, that is, 1 in 100 children, are diagnosed with this disorder. Characteristics of autism might be detected in early childhood, but this condition isn’t diagnosed until much later. 

Most children on this spectrum are able to live relatively normal lives. Still, they are different from other kids– no wonder their learning needs are unique. Traditional teaching styles are less than ideal for autistic kids. These kids require extra guidance as well as support. Thus, teaching them is a task. 

All that being said, we’ll share some tried-and-tested strategies to teach children with ASD effectively. 

#1 Create an Individualized Education Program

In the realm of special education, IEPs or Individualized Education Programs play a significant role in supporting students with autism. An IEP is a legally binding document that summarizes the goals of the education, objectives, as well as services for an autistic child. 

Creating an IEP is a collaborative effort. Therapists, teachers, parents, and other professionals work together to develop a personalized education plan for students. At least one special education teacher or special education provider must be included in the team. 

Schools that cater to such people require special needs educators, so you must hire them. These individuals possess in-depth knowledge and understanding of autism spectrum disorder and are familiar with the unique learning styles and preferences of autistic individuals. Thus, they can tailor instructions and support in a way that meets the unique needs of children with autism. 

Consider hiring people who hold a Doctorate of Education in Leadership and Innovation. A Doctor of Education degree program (Ed.D.) can be applied to various industries. Individuals who earn an Ed.D degree can work as special education as well as a curriculum specialist. 

Marymount University observes that this terminal degree connects academia with real-life situations. It prepares professionals to drive change in a variety of situations by building a deeper knowledge of teaching and learning. Thus, hiring them in a setting that caters to the needs of autistic children is essential. 

#2 Limit Sensory Overload

Any child can experience sensory overload, but this condition is more common among autistic children. 

Sensory overload occurs when one or more of the body’s senses get overstimulated to the point where an individual is unable to cope. Children with autism are either under-sensitive or over-sensitive to sensory stimuli. Environmental factors, such as flickering lights, ticking clocks, or heavy, distinct smells of perfumes and cleaning supplies, are overwhelming for them. 

It is nearly impossible to limit every potential distraction, but you can avoid the triggers as much as you can. Using fluorescent lights, for instance, makes it difficult for such children to concentrate. You can either replace them with calm lights or use light filters, which reduce high-frequency glare. 

Refrain from covering the classroom walls with too many posters. Too much visual stimulation distracts autistic kids. These elements also have a negative impact on the mood of children with autism. Thus, try limiting sensory load as much as possible. 

#3 Keep Instructions Simple

Processing complex instructions for kids with autism isn’t easy. Keep instructions short and to the point because recalling the entire sequence is often difficult for autistic children. Avoid using abstract or metaphorical language. Children might misunderstand what you’re trying to say. 

Try breaking instructions into two to three steps. Or, write them on paper, which you can hand over to those who can read. This way, children can refer to the instructions in case of any doubt. 

#4 Implement Positive Reinforcement

A fundamental concept in Applied Behavior Analysis theory is positive reinforcement. The process of reinforcing or rewarding desirable behavior to encourage its repetition is known as positive reinforcement. 

Say an autistic child completes their assignment on time, and you allow them to play with toys or offer them candies or stickers. The reward you offer them will prompt them to finish their work punctually. Do not just give out anything you like. Identify what motivates the child and give those items to reinforce positive behaviors. 

Wrapping things up, children with autism have a unique way of processing information. Their learning styles are also different from other students. An individualized and holistic approach that addresses these individuals’ specific strengths, as well as challenges, is required to teach children with autism successfully. 

Incorporate these practices when teaching autistic kids. Rest assured that you will be able to create a supportive and inclusive environment where children on this spectrum will thrive and reach their full potential.