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Scientists just got one of the best measures yet of a fundamental of physics

Beneath three glass bell jars, in a locked vault in the basement of a highly secure facility outside Paris, sits the world’s most important kilogram.

The NIST-4 Kibble balance. The instrument was used to calculate Planck’s constant, an important step toward redefining the kilogram. (Jennifer Lauren Lee/NIST PML)
The NIST-4 Kibble balance. The instrument was used to calculate Planck’s constant, an important step toward redefining the kilogram. (Jennifer Lauren Lee/NIST PML)
Ever since 1889, when the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) made the imperious pronouncement, “this prototype shall henceforth be considered to be the unit of mass,” this platinum and iridium cylinder has served as the standard by which all other kilograms are measured, from the weights on a high-tech lab scale to the plastic discs high schoolers use in chemistry class. It’s known as “le Grand K,” and it’s afforded the security and scrutiny befitting such a fancy title. Even the researchers who work with it can’t touch it, lest their fingertips wipe away atoms or leave residue on the gleaming surface. The vault containing the cylinder can only be opened by gathering three custodians carrying three different keys, and that’s happened fewer than a dozen times in the kilogram’s 127-year history.  Continue reading Scientists just got one of the best measures yet of a fundamental of physics

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Unity of Geometry


Unity of Geometry – Root Power : by Jonathan Quintin

Unity of Geometry Root-Power – the Triangle – excerpt



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Fahrenheit Celsius Kelvin – composite functions


What is the composite function f o g?

Fahrenheit Celsius Kelvins
Fahrenheit Celsius Kelvins

f is the outer function; g is the inner function. `Suppose f(x) = x-2 and g(x) = x2. (a) Find fog and gof. (fog)(x) = f(g(x)) = f(x2) = x2-2.

In 1954, the tenth general conference on weights and measures adopted the Kelvin K as the basic unit for measuring all international weights and measures. While the kelvin is the standard unit, degrees Fahrenheit and degrees Celsius are still in common use in the United States.

3 temperature conversions
3 temperature conversions

The function C(F)=5/9(F-32) relates Celsius temperatures and Fahrenheit Temperatures. The function K(C)= C + 273.15 relates celsius temperatures and kelvin temperatures.

Let’s convert Fahrenheit to Kelvin. The composition of the function K with the function C is

K(C(F)) = C(F) + 273 = (5/9)(F-32) + 273

Since C converts Fahrenheit to Celsius and K converts Celsius to Kelvin, the composition will convert Fahrenheit to Kelvin.

In English:

  • To convert Fahrenheit to Celsius, subtract 32 from the Fahrenheit temperature and then divide your answer by 1.8.
  • To convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit, multiply the Celsius temperature by 1.8 and then add 32 to your answer.
  • If you’re trying to convert Celsius to Kelvin, just add 273.15 to the Celsius temperature.
At what temperature are Fahrenheit and Celsius the same?

Let’s solve a system of linear equations graphically then algebraically.

Graphing solution:

Celsius meets Fahrenheit
Celsius meets Fahrenheit

Algebraic solution:

The formulas for converting between degree Celsius and degree Fahrenheit are:

°F = (°C * 9/5) + 32
°C = (°F – 32) * 5/9

To find the temperature when both are equal, we use an old algebra trick and just set ºF = ºC and solve one of the equations.

Thermometers Fahrenheit Celsius Kelvin
Thermometers Fahrenheit Celsius Kelvin

°C = (°C * 9/5) + 32
°C – (°C * 9/5) = 32
-4/5 * °C = 32
°C = -32 * 5/4
°C = -40

°F = (°F * 9/5) + 32
°F – (°F * 9/5) = 32
-4/5 * °F = 32
°F = -32 * 5/4
°F = -40

So the temperature when both the Celsius and Fahrenheit scales are the same is -40 degrees.

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a prominent pattern or group of stars, typically having a popular name but smaller than a constellation.

2. a group of three asterisks (⁂) drawing attention to following text.

Also used as Therefore in mathematics. 

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The Rule of Three in Mathematics

rule-of-three-calculator-150x150The Rule of Three is a Mathematical Rule that allows you to solve problems based on proportions. By having three numbers: a, b, c, such that, ( a / b = c / x), (i.e., a: b :: c: x ) you can calculate the unknown number. The Rule of Three Calculator uses the Rule of Three method to calculate the unknown value immediately based on the proportion between two numbers and the third number.

The working of the Rule of Three Calculator can be expressed as follows:

Rule of Three Calculator

Continue reading The Rule of Three in Mathematics

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Math is racist: How data is driving inequality

By Aimee Rawlins September 06, 2016 17:24PM ED

These “WMDs,” as she calls them, have three key features: They are opaque, scalable and unfair.

It’s no surprise that inequality in the U.S. is on the rise. But what you might not know is that math is partly to blame.

In a new book, “Weapons of Math Destruction,” Cathy O’Neil details all the ways that math is essentially being used for evil (my word, not hers).

From targeted advertising and insurance to education and policing, O’Neil looks at how algorithms and big data are targeting the poor, reinforcing racism and amplifying inequality.
Continue reading Math is racist: How data is driving inequality

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brainteaser – 4 squares to 3 squares

4 squares with 12-toothpicks
4 squares with 12-toothpicks
4 squares with 12-toothpicks

Here is a brainteaser involving 12 toothpicks that’s melting the grey matter of the entire internet. Can you beat it? The challenge is to turn this four-square pattern into just three squares. The rules? You can only move one toothpick at a time in any manner wish, but you cannot break or modify the toothpicks.

Answer below:

Continue reading brainteaser – 4 squares to 3 squares

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Euler’s Formula

Euler’s Formula says: for any convex polyhedron (which includes the five Platonic Solids) the Number of Faces plus the Number of Vertices (corner points) minus the Number of Edges always equals 2
 It is written: F + V – E = 2


Try it on the cube:

A cube has 6 Faces, 8 Vertices, and 12 Edges,


6 + 8 – 12 = 2


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Hindu-Arabic numerals

finger numerals
Muslim caculation systems
Muslim caculation systems

The Indian numerals discussed in our article Indian numerals form the basis of the European number systems which are now widely used. However they were not transmitted directly from India to Europe but rather came first to the Arabic/Islamic peoples and from them to Europe.

Continue reading Hindu-Arabic numerals

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The Three Laws of Energy

by Gordon Ettie

“Energy is not lost or destroyed, it is merely transferred from one party to the next.” – Sir Isaac Newton


In a discussion of energy the basic understanding revolves around the fact that there are three laws.  These are simple laws dealing with energy and can be defined as follows:

First Law

Energy can neither be created nor destroyed.  This means that you can’t make energy out of nothing— the total amount of energy in the universe is a constant. (Please note that this applies to a closed system – the Earth is not a closed system, the Earth receives energy all the time from the Sun).

Continue reading The Three Laws of Energy

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Pythagorean cube – seven

cube seven points
cube seven points
cube seven points

Pythagorean teaching – From this comes the great occult axiom: “The center is the father of the directions, the dimensions, and the distances.”

This cube represents six points with man in the middle.

Seven Planetary Spheres

Ancient Greeks taught that souls come to the earth from, and return to the Milky Way via seven planetary spheres – those being Saturn, Jupiter, Mars the Sun, Venus, Mercury and the Moon. In the image above we see the stars and signs of the zodiac at the top, Saturn through Mercury down the back of the chair, the Moon in the sky and Earth in his hands.

The logic of this order doesn’t appear to make sense until you look at an image which shows the spheres mapped onto the seven points (including the center) of a hexagram. Note how the sun (symbolized by a point in a circle) is at the center of this diagram and how the planets are divided with the outer ones being ‘above’ the sun.

Continue reading Pythagorean cube – seven

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the story of tidbit – narrated by Kasey Wells

Published on Mar 17, 2015

the story of tidbit was written to be a THEORY OF EVERYTHING and a MODERN CREATION MYTH in one… a visual adventure searching the origins of the UNIVERSE and the essence of GOD.

the story of tidbit follows the inception and evolution of polarized MATTER and LIFE as they are perpetually propelled around and through the magnetic fields and neutral positions that bind/intertwine them.

Scoped by scientific and spiritual principles the story of tidbit recognizes the infinite value of neutral both atomically and philosophically.