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Literary works

There is a lively history of poetry, and poetry keeps engaging, fulfilling, and transgressing that history. Each of us becomes a more effective and responsive reader as we learn more about poetry’s past and its forms. Literary works have conventionally been divided into three generic types or classes, dependent upon who is supposedly speaking:

  • epic or narrative: in which the narrator speaks in the first person, then lets the characters speak for themselves;
  • drama: in which the characters do all the talking;
  • lyric: uttered through the first person.

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Ode

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Ode is a form of stately and elaborate lyrical verse. A classic ode is structured in three parts – the strophe, the antistrophe and the epode but different forms such as the homostrophic ode and the irregular ode exist.

Greek origins

There were two great divisions of the Greek melos or song; the one the personal utterance of the poet, the other, the choric song of his band of trained dancers. Each of these culminated in what have been called odes, but the former, in the hands of Alcaeus, Anacreon and Sappho, came closer to what modern criticism knows as lyric, pure and simple. On the other hand, the choir-song, in which the poet spoke for himself, but always supported, or interpreted, by a chorus, led up to what is now known as ode proper. It was Alcman, as is supposed, who first gave to his poems a strophic arrangement, and the strophe has come to be essential to an ode. Stesichorus, Ibycus and Simonides of Ceos led the way to the two great masters of ode among the ancients, Pindar and Bacchylides.

The form and verse-arrangement of Pindar’s great lyrics have regulated the type of the heroic ode. It is now perceived that they are consciously composed in very elaborate measures, and that each is the result of a separate act of creative ingenuity, but each preserving an absolute consistency of form. So far from being, as critics down to Cowley and Boileau supposed, utterly licentious in their irregularity, they are more like the canzos and sirvcntcs of the medieval troubadours than any modern verse. The Latins themselves seem to have lost the secret of these complicated harmonies, and they made no serious attempt to imitate the odes of Pindar and Bacchylides.

It is probable that the Greek odes gradually lost their musical character; they were accompanied on the flute, and then declaimed without any music at all. The ode, as it was practised by the Romans, returned to the personally lyrical form of the Lesbian lyrists. This was exemplified, in the most exquisite way, by Horace and Catullus; the former imitated, and even translated, Alcaeus and Anacreon, the latter was directly inspired by Sappho.


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Novel

NOVEL, n. A short story padded. A species of composition bearing the same relation to literature that the panorama bears to art. As it is too long to be read at a sitting the impressions made by its successive parts are successively effaced, as in the panorama. Unity, totality of effect, is impossible; for besides the few pages last read all that is carried in mind is the mere plot of what has gone before. To the romance the novel is what photography is to painting. Its distinguishing principle, probability, corresponds to the literal actuality of the photograph and puts it distinctly into the category of reporting; whereas the free wing of the romancer enables him to mount to such altitudes of imagination as he may be fitted to attain; and the first three essentials of the literary art are imagination, imagination and imagination. The art of writing novels, such as it was, is long dead everywhere except in Russia, where it is new. Peace to its ashes — some of which have a large sale.

Ambrose Bierce (1842 – 1914), The Devil's Dictionary

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Earl of Kent

Odo, Earl of Kent
William Shakespeare (1564-1616).  The Tragedy of King Lear.
The Harvard Classics.  1909-14.
Act II
Scene II

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Threes Anna

Threes Anna is a writer-director

Threes Anna She lives in the Netherlands en works on all kinds of places in the world, depending on what’s necessary for the ongoing project.

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Folk tales

by Carol Hurst

When I think of oral language and math, I think of folk tales. It's the storyteller in me that will not be repressed. Folk tales abound with numbers, especially threes. There's a lot of supposition as to why. Some say it's because the number three has been a mystical number since antiquity. Others say it's because of the Trinity. I say it's because those old storytellers knew their stuff. They knew that listeners would sit still for three tries or three characters, but if you get to four, it's overkill and you're pushing it.

Get the kids finding threes in folktales; sometimes it's easy:

 " Three Bears," " Three Pigs," " Three Billy Goats Gruff." Other threes are more subltly hidden.

read more at CarolHurst.com . . .
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Three Men in a Boat (to Say Nothing of the Dog)

By Jerome K. Jerome

Copyright 2002 by Litrix Reading Room

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The Lord of the Rings Trilogy

Lord of The Rings Book CoversThe Lord of the Rings is an epic fantasy story by J. R. R. Tolkien, a sequel to his earlier work, The Hobbit. It was published in three volumes in 1954 and 1955. Three movie productions have been made: the first, by animator Ralph Bakshi was released in 1978 (as part one of what was originally to be a two-part adaptation of the story); the second being a 1980 television special; and the third being director Peter Jackson’s film trilogy released in 2001, 2002, and 2003. For more information on the fictional universe the story takes place in, including lists of characters and locations, see Middle-earth.

The story’s titular character is the Dark Lord Sauron of Mordor. The primary villain of the work, he created the One Ring to control nineteen other Rings of Power, and is thus the “Lord of the Rings.” Sauron, in turn, was the servant of an earlier Dark Lord, Morgoth (Melkor), who is prominent in Tolkien’s The Silmarillion, the history of Middle-earth.

“Three rings to the eleven kings.”

THE THREE BOOKS OF LORD OF THE RINGS

  • FELLOWSHIP OF THE RING
  • THE TWO TOWERS
  • RETURN OF THE KING

read more at Wikipedia . . .

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Jack and the Beanstalk

The Story of Jack and the Beanstalk

Jack and the Beanstalk ONCE upon a time there was a poor widow who lived in a little cottage with her only son Jack.

Jack was a giddy, thoughtless boy, but very kind-hearted and affectionate. There had been a hard winter, and after it the poor woman had suffered from fever and ague. Jack did no work as yet, and by degrees they grew dreadfully poor. The widow saw that there was no means of keeping Jack and herself from starvation but by selling her cow; so one morning she said to her son, 'I am too weak to go myself, Jack, so you must take the cow to market for me, and sell her.'

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The Incredible Journey: A Tale of Three Animals

The Incredible Journey: A Tale of Three Animalsby Sheila Burnford

Heritage Books
College Highway, POB 48
Southampton, MA 01073
Phone (413) 527-6200
Fax (413) 527-8280
E-mail: sales@heritagebks.com

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Lie-Awake Song

Louis Untermeyer, ed. (1885-1977). Modern American Poetry.  1919.
 
Amelia Josephine Burr. 1878-
 
Lie-Awake Song
 

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Pirate Story

Stevenson, Robert Louis (1850-1894).  A Child's Garden of Verses and Underwoods.  1913.
  
Pirate Story

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