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Eclipses

partial lunar eclipse
types of solar eclipses
types of solar eclipses

Eclipses, solar and lunar, have fascinated scientists and lay people for centuries. In ancient times, eclipses were seen as phenomena to be feared – many cultures came up with stories and myths to explain the temporary darkening of the Sun or the Moon. In recent centuries, eclipses have been sought after by scientists and astronomers who use the events to study and examine our natural world.

Solar eclipses can only occur during a New Moon when the Moon moves between Earth and the Sun and the 3 celestial bodies form a straight line: Earth–Moon–Sun.

There are between 2 and 5 solar eclipses every year.

There are 3 kinds of solar eclipses: total, partial, and annular. There is also a rare hybrid that is a combination of an annular and a total eclipse.

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color blindness

Normal Vision
Normal Vision

There are three main kinds of color blindness, based on photopigment defects in the three different kinds of cones that respond to blue, green, and red light. Red-green color blindness is the most common, followed by blue-yellow color blindness. A complete absence of color vision —total color blindness – is rare.

Deuteranomaly
Deuteranomaly

People with ‘faulty’ trichromatic vision will be colour blind to some extent and are known as anomalous trichromats. In people with this condition all of their three cone types are used to perceive light colours but one type of cone perceives light slightly out of alignment, so that there are three different types of effect produced depending upon which cone type is ‘faulty’.

The different anomalous conditions are protanomaly, which is a reduced sensitivity to red light, deuteranomaly which is a reduced sensitivity to green light and is the most common form of colour blindness and tritanomaly which is a reduced sensitivity to blue light and is extremely rare.

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trichromats

trichromatic-vision
trichromats
trichromats

Trichromacy or trichromaticism is the possessing of three independent channels for conveying color information, derived from the three different types of cone cells in the eye. Organisms with trichromacy are called trichromats.

According to the trichromatic theory of color vision, also known as the Young-Helmholtz theory of color vision, there are three receptors in the retina that are responsible for the perception of color. One receptor is sensitive to the color green, another to the color blue and a third to the color red.

vision
vision

Most people are trichromats, possessing three types of cone cells to see color with. A woman in northern England has four types of working cone cells, which means she has the ability to see far more colors than most of us can.

Article at https://futurism.com/uk-woman-extra-cone-cell-her-eyes-can-see-more-colors/

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The plague

Types of Plague

Plague
Plague

There are three different types of plague: bubonic plague, septicemic plague, and pneumonic plague. The most common type is bubonic plague. Septicemic plague occurs when the Yersinia pestis bacteria (the organism responsible for the disease) multiply in the blood. Pneumonic plague is the most serious of the three types of plague. It occurs when plague bacteria infect the lungs, causing pneumonia.

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Scientists just got one of the best measures yet of a fundamental of physics

Beneath three glass bell jars, in a locked vault in the basement of a highly secure facility outside Paris, sits the world’s most important kilogram.

The NIST-4 Kibble balance. The instrument was used to calculate Planck’s constant, an important step toward redefining the kilogram. (Jennifer Lauren Lee/NIST PML)
The NIST-4 Kibble balance. The instrument was used to calculate Planck’s constant, an important step toward redefining the kilogram. (Jennifer Lauren Lee/NIST PML)
Ever since 1889, when the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) made the imperious pronouncement, “this prototype shall henceforth be considered to be the unit of mass,” this platinum and iridium cylinder has served as the standard by which all other kilograms are measured, from the weights on a high-tech lab scale to the plastic discs high schoolers use in chemistry class. It’s known as “le Grand K,” and it’s afforded the security and scrutiny befitting such a fancy title. Even the researchers who work with it can’t touch it, lest their fingertips wipe away atoms or leave residue on the gleaming surface. The vault containing the cylinder can only be opened by gathering three custodians carrying three different keys, and that’s happened fewer than a dozen times in the kilogram’s 127-year history.  Continue reading Scientists just got one of the best measures yet of a fundamental of physics

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Unity of Geometry

geometry

Unity of Geometry – Root Power : by Jonathan Quintin

Unity of Geometry Root-Power – the Triangle – excerpt

 

 

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Fidget spinner

Fidget spinner
Fidget spinner
“Fidget spinners” are small, ball-bearing devices that the user can rotate between his or her fingers. The momentum of the toy provides a pleasing sensory experience, according to user reviews, while the challenge of tossing, transferring and twirling the spinners has spawned an entire universe of instructional YouTube videos. 

Many spinners are marketed as aides for individuals with anxiety, autism and ADHD; Cppslee’s spinner marketing patter on Amazon, for example, promises greater concentration for people with those conditions, plus an opportunity to “bring out that creative genius lying deep within you.”

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The Constellations of the Summer Triangle

The Constellations of the Summer Triangle
The Constellations of the Summer Triangle
Stars from three constellations in the northern hemisphere form an imaginary triangle – the Summer Triangle, which is an asterism. The constellations Aquila, Cygnus, and Lyra contain the stars Altair, Deneb, and Vega. Together these stars create a nightly picture of a triangle in space.
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ATP – Adenosine Triphosphate

Adenosine Triphosphate
Adenosine Triphosphate
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is considered by biologists to be the energy currency of life. It is the high-energy molecule that stores the energy we need to do just about everything we do. It is present in the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm of every cell, and essentially all the physiological mechanisms that require energy for operation obtain it directly from the stored ATP.
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Universal Gas Law

Universal Gas Law
Universal Gas Law
“Common examples of state variables are the pressure P, volume V, and temperature T. In the ideal gas law, the state of n moles of gas is precisely determined by these three state variables. If a property, e.g., enthalpy H, is defined as a combination of other state variables, then it too is a state variable.”

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Different Types of Sleep Paralysis

Sleep paralysis
Sleep paralysis
According to an in-depth study performed in 1999, there are three types of hallucinations that can occur during sleep paralysis: “incubus”, “intruder”, and “unusual bodily experiences”.

Incubus

People feel intense pressure on their chests and they feel they cannot breath. However, this is only a mental game. It feels like they can’t breath because they are afraid. Also, the body is still in REM breathing mode which is very shallow. It would seem strange to anyone.
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Fahrenheit Celsius Kelvin – composite functions

temperature

What is the composite function f o g?

Fahrenheit Celsius Kelvins
Fahrenheit Celsius Kelvins

f is the outer function; g is the inner function. `Suppose f(x) = x-2 and g(x) = x2. (a) Find fog and gof. (fog)(x) = f(g(x)) = f(x2) = x2-2.

In 1954, the tenth general conference on weights and measures adopted the Kelvin K as the basic unit for measuring all international weights and measures. While the kelvin is the standard unit, degrees Fahrenheit and degrees Celsius are still in common use in the United States.

3 temperature conversions
3 temperature conversions

The function C(F)=5/9(F-32) relates Celsius temperatures and Fahrenheit Temperatures. The function K(C)= C + 273.15 relates celsius temperatures and kelvin temperatures.

Let’s convert Fahrenheit to Kelvin. The composition of the function K with the function C is

K(C(F)) = C(F) + 273 = (5/9)(F-32) + 273

Since C converts Fahrenheit to Celsius and K converts Celsius to Kelvin, the composition will convert Fahrenheit to Kelvin.

In English:

  • To convert Fahrenheit to Celsius, subtract 32 from the Fahrenheit temperature and then divide your answer by 1.8.
  • To convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit, multiply the Celsius temperature by 1.8 and then add 32 to your answer.
  • If you’re trying to convert Celsius to Kelvin, just add 273.15 to the Celsius temperature.
At what temperature are Fahrenheit and Celsius the same?

Let’s solve a system of linear equations graphically then algebraically.

Graphing solution:

Celsius meets Fahrenheit
Celsius meets Fahrenheit

Algebraic solution:

The formulas for converting between degree Celsius and degree Fahrenheit are:

°F = (°C * 9/5) + 32
°C = (°F – 32) * 5/9

To find the temperature when both are equal, we use an old algebra trick and just set ºF = ºC and solve one of the equations.

Thermometers Fahrenheit Celsius Kelvin
Thermometers Fahrenheit Celsius Kelvin

°C = (°C * 9/5) + 32
°C – (°C * 9/5) = 32
-4/5 * °C = 32
°C = -32 * 5/4
°C = -40

°F = (°F * 9/5) + 32
°F – (°F * 9/5) = 32
-4/5 * °F = 32
°F = -32 * 5/4
°F = -40

So the temperature when both the Celsius and Fahrenheit scales are the same is -40 degrees.