The World Health Organisation (WHO) has published an updated guidance on the use of face masks for control of COVID-19.
In his opening remarks at a media briefing on Covid- 19 last Friday, WHO Director-General Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus said the guidance is based on evolving evidence, and provides updated advice on who should wear a mask, when it should be worn and what it should be made of.
He said WHO has developed this guidance through a careful review of all available evidence, and extensive consultation with international experts and civil society groups.
“I wish to be very clear that the guidance we are publishing today is an update of what we have been saying for months: that masks should only ever be used as part of a comprehensive strategy in the fight against COVID.
“Masks on their own will not protect you from COVID-19,” he emphasised.
He said the updated guidance contains new information on the composition of fabric masks, based on academic research requested by WHO.
“Based on this new research, WHO advises that fabric masks should consist of at least three layers of different material. Details of which materials we recommend for each layer are in the guidelines.”
According to the latest guidelines, cloth masks should consist of at least three layers of different materials: an inner layer being an absorbent material like cotton, a middle layer of non-woven materials such as polypropylene (for the filter) and an outer layer, which is a non- absorbent material such as a polyester or a polyester blend.
“Fabric cloths (e.g., nylon blends and 100 percent polyester) when folded into two layers, provides 2-5 times increased filtration efficiency compared to a single layer of the same cloth, and filtration efficiency increases 2-7 times if it is folded into 4 layers. Masks made of cotton handkerchiefs alone should consist of at least 4 layers, but have achieved only 13 percent filtration efficiency. Very porous materials, such as gauze, even with multiple layers will not provide sufficient
Big O notation is a mathematical notation that describes the limiting behavior of a function when the argument tends towards a particular value or infinity. It is a member of a family of notations invented by Paul Bachmann, Edmund Landau, and others, collectively called Bachmann–Landau notation or asymptotic notation.
Two simple concepts separate properties of an algorithm itself from properties of a particular computer, operating system, programming language, and compiler used for its implementation. The concepts, briefly outlined earlier, are as follows:
• The input data size, or the number n of individual data items in a single data instance to be processed when solving a given problem. Obviously, how to measure the data size depends on the problem: n means the number of items to sort (in sorting applications), number of nodes (vertices) or arcs (edges) in graph algorithms, number of picture elements (pixels) in image processing, length of a character string in text processing, and so on.
• The number of elementary operations taken by a particular algorithm, or its running time. We assume it is a function f(n) of the input data size n. The function depends on the elementary operations chosen to build the algorithm.
Algorithms are analyzed under the following assumption: if the running time of an algorithm as a function of n differs only by a constant factor from the running time for another algorithm, then the two algorithms have essentially the same time complexity. Functions that measure running time, T(n), have nonnegative values because time is nonnegative, T(n) ≥ 0. The integer argument n (data size) is also nonnegative.
Definition 1 (Big Oh)
Let f(n) and g(n) be nonnegative-valued functions defined on nonnegative integers n. Then g(n)is O(f(n)) (read “g(n)is Big Oh of f(n)”) iff there exists a positive real constant c and a positive integer n0 such that g(n) ≤ c f(n) for all n > n0.
Note. We use the notation “iff ” as an abbreviation of “if and only if”.
The stooges are street cleaners who find some valuable bonds and return them to their owner. The man is so grateful that he offers them a big reward if they can find an honest man with executive ability. Their search leads them to a woman who’s fiancée is honest, but he’s in jail. The boys decide to commit a crime so they can go behind bars to find him. In prison the boys locate the man and help him escape, only to find out that their benefactor is a con man and on the way himself to the slammer.—Mitch Shapiro <firstname.lastname@example.org>
Tony Orlando and Dawn was a pop trio that in the 1970s that had 15 Top 40 hits, including one of the best-selling singles of all time.
The group had the No. 1 hits “Candida,” “Knock Three Times,” “He Don’t Love You (Like I Love You)” and “Tie a Yellow Ribbon Round the Ole Oak Tree”. “Tie a Yellow Ribbon Round the Ole Oak Tree,” released in 1973, is among the 75 best-selling songs of all time, with more than 6 million copies sold.
The process of learning is an important and implicit part of the users’ interaction with products, both in a digital and non-digital realm. It is a continuous process, regardless of their level of expertise or previous familiarity with the subject matter. It begins with the users’ initial interaction with the product and continues all the way through as most advanced functions and features are learned. An effective learning experience can greatly enhance the users’ overall experience with the product.
The action of learning is a three-step process, comprised of Information Acquisition, Information Processing and Information Cataloging/Action Taking. Let’s take a look at what is involved in each of these three steps.
The goal of this discussion is to explore the nature of the action of learning, as well as to define what factors ensure the most effective learning process for the user.
The Action of Learning
The action of learning is a three-step process, comprised of Information Acquisition, Information Processing and Information Cataloguing/Action Taking. Let’s take a look at what is involved in each of these three steps.
In this first step, the user receives new information from a single source or from multiple sources. This new information may be presented in a visual, auditory, or sensory format.
In the second step, the user processes the newly acquired information by acknowledging and understanding its meaning. This step is dependent on the user’s individual mental processing capabilities, which may vary from person to person. The user’s previous familiarity with similar types of information may play a significant role in his/her processing of this new information.
Information Cataloguing and Action Taking
Having processed the newly received information the user in turn then stores it for future use by mentally cataloguing it. As part of this cataloguing process, the user creates necessary contextual associations to easily access the newly learned information at a later date. At times, as we will see shortly, the Action Taking is conducted without the need for Cataloguing.
Later in this discussion we will look at some of the factors, which provide for a more effective learning process for the user. Now, however, let’s take a look at a commonplace example, which will illustrate the three steps involved in the action of learning. I refer to this as the Traffic Light Sequence.
Step 1 — Information Acquisition
As the driver approaches an intersection, the traffic light changes from green to yellow; a visual cue. The driver acquires this new information and acknowledges the change in the traffic light. His/her ability to understand the meaning of this event will largely be based on previously learned information about the individual meanings of the colors of the traffic light.
Step 2 — Information Processing
Having acknowledged that the traffic light changed, the driver has to process the actual meaning of this event. The driver is aware that a certain action is needed to respond to the change in the traffic light. Other ambient factors may require additional mental tasks and calculations on the part of the driver, such as noticing the presence of the police vehicle within the driver’s peripheral vision. These ambient factors place an additional burden on the driver’s decision-making capability to take the most effective (and safe) course of action.
Step 3 — Action Taking
Having completed the information-processing task(s) the driver makes the decision to apply the brakes and come to a complete stop. This action completes the third and last step in this sequence.
The Elements of Learning
The action of learning is a highly individualized process in that it varies from person to person. There are several factors that can make the learning process more effective and user-friendly.
Often highly complex, information needs to be properly formatted and presented to its intended audience in a concise and effective way. Clarity of presentation plays a critical role in the overall learning process. It is important to consider proper visual and/or audio delivery methods. Information architecture, spatial organization, layout considerations, data density and sound levels, among others things, need to be carefully considered.
To ensure effective information delivery and enhance the users’ learning experience, it is important to select and apply the most effective methods of information delivery. For example, learning new features of a digital platform may require a combination of methods, such as instructional training, online resources, collaborative workshops and user manuals. The lecture format, a popular if not somewhat outdated method of information delivery, is widely used in higher education. This form of learning requires students to understand and retain the information presented by their instructor during a lecture. There are a number of factors in the use of this information delivery format, however, that can make the students’ learning process very challenging, including the instructors’ voice, cadence, rhythm of speech, accent, physical posture, their energy level, as well as their ability to effectively hold the attention of a lecture hall.
It is not enough to simply present the new information to students; it is equally critical to effectively illustrate to students the relevance of this new information as it applies to real-world, current industry examples. This is one of the biggest factors, which, in my opinion, is often lacking in the instructional realm of academia.
Empathy is a key element of effective information delivery. This is particularly true in an interactive form as part of the instructional process. This in turn leads to a much more effective and enjoyable learning experience for the user. Understanding the holistic and conceptual framework of what they are learning, also allows them to apply new skills and information much more effectively. This is why it is very important for the instructor to not only explain the “what” and the “how,” but also the “why.”
The factors described above are equally important in both the educational and corporate environment. The latter includes departments such as Development, Operations, Product and Human Resources, where effective instructional methods play a critical role.
The more complex and advanced the information is, the greater the instructional effort needs to be made, to deliver an effective and user-friendly learning experience to a technologically and intellectually diverse audience. Available instructional resources need to be properly researched and analyzed. Appropriate content delivery methods need to be carefully selected. Moreover, the information delivery methods may need to be customized and modified, should the need arise, even during the ongoing instructional process.
In the end, such an approach will improve the users’ learning processes, ultimately enhancing their overall experience of learning.
By DAVID HAYES / SEPTEMBER 12, 2017
Posted In: Back-End Development
Tags: Tags: Functional Programming, Object Orientated PHP, Up and Running
Fundamentally, this article is for people in a place like that. Our goal today is to clarify what these three major paradigms in software development are, how they relate to each other, and which you’ll want to use when. Contrary to popular belief, there isn’t a “right” or “wrong” answer ever.
Before we start breaking down all the programming paradigms we’ll cover, it makes sense to be clearer about what we mean by “paradigms”. To cite a definition which is relevant, the American Heritage Dictionary says a paradigm is:
A set of assumptions, concepts, values, and practices that constitutes a way of viewing reality for the community that shares them, especially in an intellectual discipline
Summary of all major differences between SPF and UPF rating systems. What you need to know about SPF and UPF.
Both SPF (Sun Protection Factor) and UPF (Ultraviolet Protection Factor) are standards used to measure sunburn protection. SPF, the standard used to measure the effectiveness of sunscreens, has been around for many years. The UPF system is relatively new and was created specially for sun protective fabrics. At first, American sun protective fabrics were rated using the SPF standard until the FTC finalized the UPF standard we have today. Use of the UPF standard is voluntary so some sun protective fabric manufactures still use the SPF system.
It’s been said that we really only fall in love with three people in our lifetime. Yet, it’s also believed that we need each of these loves for a different reason.
Often our first is when we are young, in high school even. It’s the idealistic love—the one that seems like the fairy tales we read as children.
This is the love that appeals to what we should be doing for society’s sake—and probably our families. We enter into it with the belief that this will be our only love and it doesn’t matter if it doesn’t feel quite right, or if we find ourselves having to swallow down our personal truths to make it work because deep down we believe that this is what love is supposed to be.
Falling In Love the 2nd Time: The Hard Love
The second is supposed to be our hard love—the one that teaches us lessons about who we are and how we often want or need to be loved. This is the kind of love that hurts, whether through lies, pain or manipulation.
We think we are making different choices than our first, but in reality we are still making choices out of the need to learn lessons—but we hang on. Our second love can become a cycle, oftentimes one we keep repeating because we think that somehow the ending will be different than before. Yet, each time we try, it somehow ends worse than before.
Sometimes it’s unhealthy, unbalanced or narcissistic even. There may be emotional, mental or even physical abuse or manipulation—most likely there will be high levels of drama. This is exactly what keeps us addicted to this story line, because it’s the emotional roller coaster of extreme highs and lows and like a junkie trying to get a fix, we stick through the lows with the expectation of the high.
With this kind of love, trying to make it work becomes more important than whether it actually should.
It’s the love that we wished was right.
Falling In Love the 3rd Time: The Love that Lasts
And the third is the love we never see coming. The one that usually looks all wrong for us and that destroys any lingering ideals we clung to about what love is supposed to be. This is the love that comes so easy it doesn’t seem possible. It’s the kind where the connection can’t be explained and knocks us off our feet because we never planned for it.
This is the love where we come together with someone and it just fits—there aren’t any ideal expectations about how each person should be acting, nor is there pressure to become someone other than we are.
We are just simply accepted for who we are already—and it shakes to our core.
It isn’t what we envisioned our love would look like, nor does it abide by the rules that we had hoped to play it safe by. But still it shatters our preconceived notions and shows us that love doesn’t have to be how we thought in order to be true.
This is the love that keeps knocking on our door regardless of how long it takes us to answer.
It’s the love that just feels right.
Maybe we don’t all experience these loves in this lifetime, but perhaps that’s just because we aren’t ready to. Maybe the reality is we need to truly learn what love isn’t before we can grasp what it is.
Possibly we need a whole lifetime to learn each lesson, or maybe, if we’re lucky, it only takes a few years.
Perhaps it’s not about if we are ever ready for love, but if love is ready for us.
And then there may be those people who fall in love once and find it passionately lasts until their last breath. Those faded and worn pictures of our grandparents who seemed just as in love as they walked hand-in-hand at age 80 as they did in their wedding picture—the kind that leaves us wondering if we really know how to love at all.
Someone once told me they are the lucky ones, and perhaps they are.
But I kinda think that those who make it to their third love are really the lucky ones.
They are the ones who are tired of having to try and whose broken hearts lay beating in front of them wondering if there is just something inherently wrong with how they love.
But there’s not; it’s just a matter of if their partner loves in the same way they do or not.
Just because it has never worked out before doesn’t mean that it won’t work out now.
What it really comes down to is if we are limited by how we love, or instead love without limits. We can all choose to stay with our first love, the one that looks good and will make everyone else happy. We can choose to stay with our second under the belief that if we don’t have to fight for it, then it’s not worth having—or we can make the choice to believe in the third love.
The one that feels like home without any rationale; the love that isn’t like a storm—but rather the quiet peace of the night after.
And maybe there’s something special about our first love, and something heartbreakingly unique about our second…but there’s also just something pretty amazing about our third.
The one we never see coming.
The one that actually lasts.
The one that shows us why it never worked out before.
And it’s that possibility that makes trying again always worthwhile, because the truth is you never know when you’ll stumble into love.
The most expensive player in the world, Neymar recently headed for Paris in a move that shocked the football world. While still slightly below Messi and Ronaldo, Neymar is in the upper echelons of the talent-packed history of Brazilian football. His 92 Pace makes him one of the fastest players out there, and his 94 Dribbling is reminiscent of Ronaldinho at his peak.
In a constant battle for best in the world (and of all-time), it’s hard to say anything about Messi without stretching into hyperbole. His 95 Dribbling is the highest, and very few defenders are able to even come close to stopping him when he’s playing his best. Combined with 89 Pace and 90 Shooting, Messi may usually start on the wing but he always finds a way to get in front of goal—where he rarely misses.
There are few things that Ronaldo cannot do on a pitch, and few attacking positions in which he won’t excel. His 93 Shooting is evidenced by the unreal number of goals he’s scored in the past few seasons, and Ronaldo’s 90 Pace and 90 Dribbling make him virtually untouchable when in top form. Sometimes deployed as a forward, Ronaldo can dance into the box and dispatch the ball into the net without skipping a beat. He is probably at his best on the left wing, where he can create chances for teammates, or as he does more often, cut inside and lash the ball past a helpless goalkeeper.