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The Metre – the repeating circle & triangulation

The Metre (meaning measure) was one ten-millionth of the distance from the North Pole to the Equator! France embarked on a first large scale measurement. It took 7 years to measure the distance from Dunkirk to Barsalona. They used triangulation with an instrument called the Repeating Circle along with trigonometry.

The standardization of measurement: the Metre

Creating the Metre – a universal standard

By the 16th century, there we over 250,000 weights and measures in Europe. This effected trade, navigation, building plans, etc. Fire hoses would not connect from town to town. France chose to create a standard by measuring something unchangeable. They chose the Earth. Before this standardization, the human body (the Ruler of the land) would make new measurements upon gaining power.

The Repeating Circle

Repeating Circle
Repeating Circle

DESCRIPTION

This is one of two double repeating circles that Ferdinand Rudolph Hassler, the first superintendent of the U. S. Coast Survey, ordered from Edward Troughton in London in 1812, and that was shipped in 1815. The large circle may be angled from vertical to horizontal to the opposite vertical position. It is graduated to 10 minutes, and read by four verniers and two magnifiers to single minutes.

A repeating circle is a geodetic instrument with two telescopes that is designed to reduce errors by repeated observations taken on all parts of the circumference of a circle. The form was developed by the Chevalier de Borda, first executed by Etienne Lenoir in Paris around 1789, and popular for about 50 years.

Ref: F. R. Hassler, “Papers on Various Subjects Connected with the Survey of the Coast of the United States,” Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 2 (1825): 232-420, on 315-320 and pl. VII. “The Repeating Circle Without Reflection, as made by Troughton,” in The Cyclopaedia: or, Universal Dictionary of Arts, Sciences, and Literature, edited by Abraham Rees (London, 1819), Vol. VII, Art “Circle.”

Image credit:

NAME: repeating circle MAKER: Troughton and Simms PLACE MADE: United Kingdom: England, London MEASUREMENTS: overall: 32 1/8 in x 26 3/4 in x 17 in; 81.6356 cm x 67.945 cm x 43.18 cm upper circle: 17 1/2 in; 44.45 cm circle at base: 13 1/2 in; 34.29 cm telescope: 24 in; 60.96 cm overall; base: 16 3/4 in x 15 1/4 in x 16 in; 42.545 cm x 38.735 cm x 40.64 cm overall; horizontal circle: 13 in x 23 in x 20 in; 33.02 cm x 58.42 cm x 50.8 cm ID NUMBER PH.314640 CATALOG NUMBER 314640 ACCESSION NUMBER 208213


The Repeating Circle History

Developed from the reflecting circle, the repeating circle is an instrument for geodetic surveying, invented by Etienne Lenoir in 1784, while an assistant of Jean-Charles de Borda, who later improved the instrument. It was notable as being the equal of the great theodolite created by the renowned instrument maker, Jesse Ramsden. It was used to measure the meridian arc from Dunkirk to Barcelona by Jean Baptiste Delambre and Pierre Méchain (see: meridian arc of Delambre and Méchain). Source Wikipedia

12” Repeating Circle

The Repeating Circle
12 inch Repeating Circle – 1866

The repeating circle is made of two telescopes mounted on a shared axis with scales to measure the angle between the two. The instrument combines multiple measurements to increase accuracy with the following procedure:

Repeating Circle Mode of Operation:

Procedure for Repeating Circle​
Procedure for Repeating Circle


(1) The instrument is aligned so its plane includes the two points to be measured, and each telescope is aimed at a point;
(2) Keeping the angle between the telescopes locked, the left (black) telescope is rotated clockwise to aim at the right point;
(3) the right (gray) telescope’s position is noted, and it is rotated back to the left point.

At this stage, the angle on the instrument is double the angle of interest between the points. Repeating the procedure causes the instrument to show 4× the angle of interest, with further iterations increasing it to 6×, 8×, and so on. In this way, many measurements can be added together, allowing some of the random measurement errors to cancel out.

Borda Reflecting Circle

Borda Reflecting Circle​
Borda Reflecting Circle

The calculation of longitudes, indispensable for determining a ship’s exact position at sea, was not possible until the octant’s invention in the 18th century, though it lacked sufficient precision. The French mathematician Charles de Borda finally solved this problem by inventing the reflection circle.

Graduated to 720°, Borda’s circle enables the measurement of an angle between two celestial bodies. First the instrument’s telescope is aimed at a celestial body, then a second time via a small semi-reflecting mirror in the middle of the circle. This double measurement limits errors and improves the precision of measurements.

Borda carried out several tests during expeditions to the Caribbean and perfected the instrument, giving it its definitive form around 1777. This example was formerly in the physics cabinet of Jacques Alexandre César Charles.

Sources: Wikipedia, Google, Measurement history BBC Precision The Measure of All Things 1 of 3
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Duck typing in python

When I see a bird that walks like a duck and swims like a duck and quacks like a duck I called that bird a duck

J. W. Riley

The Python code language is dynamically typed. In many languages (C++, Java) you do need to explicitly declare the types of variables. Python uses duck typing for all operations (function calls, method calls, and operators). You can treat an object as a duck. It raises a TypeError at runtime if an operation cannot be applied to an object because it is of an inappropriate type.

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kerfuffle

ker·fuf·fle

/kərˈfəfəl/

noun

INFORMAL•BRITISH

  1. a commotion or fuss, especially one caused by conflicting views. For example, “there was a kerfuffle over the chairmanship”.
  2. a disturbance or commotion typically caused by a dispute or conflict. “In all the kerfuffle, nobody seemed to have noticed Harry, which suited him perfectly”.
  3. Example: “Given Noah’s social media kerfuffle with Kanye West, viewers should also be attuned to any biting commentary.” — Melissa Ruggieri, USA TODAY, 30 Mar. 2022

Synonyms

disturbance, hoo-ha, to-do, commotion, flutter, hurly-burly, disruption, hoo-hah and brouhaha.

Origin

The root of “kerfuffle” is the very old Scots verb “fuffle,” which first appeared in print in the early 16th century and means “to throw into disorder.” The Oxford English Dictionary suggests that the “ker” part of “kerfuffle” may hare come from the Gaelic word “car,” meaning “to twist, bend or turn around.” In the case of “kerfuffle,” that would serve as a sort of intensive element, giving us the sense of “a twisted up, confused ruckus or dispute.” Sounds like every “kerfuffle” I’ve ever seen.

My Little Pony Kerfuffle

Kerfuffle - My Little Pony
Kerfuffle

Sources: google, http://www.word-detective.com/2009/04/kerfuffle/, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/kerfuffle#examples

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3 Sins of Heracles (Hercules)

Heracles was the greatest of the Greek heroes, the ancestor of royal clans who claimed to be Heracleidae (Ἡρακλεῖδαι), and a champion of the Olympian order against chthonic monsters. In Rome and the modernWest, he is known as Hercules, with whom the later Roman emperors, in particular Commodus and Maximian, often identified themselves. – Wikipedia

The Three Sins of Heracles

Excerpt from Georges Dumézil

Heracles is the Greek reflex of a far more ancient Indo-European mythic figure, arques Dumézil-a warrior figure who commits three sins, violating each stratum of tripartite Indo-European society. Dumézil here follows the account of Heracles’ three sins preserved in the work of Diodorus Siculus, a Greek historian of the first century B.. Heracles’ twelve-year servitude to Eurystheus was only the first of three “penalties” the hero would suffer, each the consequence of his sin, each bound up with mental or physical ailment. Coqnate heroic figures among other Indo-European peoples to whom Dumézil makes reference in this selection are Indra, warrior deity par excellence of India, and Starcatherus, the Danish avatar of a well-known Scandinavian hero (Old Norse Starkar), whose tale is preserved in the Gesta Danorum of the twelfth/thirteenth-century cleric Saxo Gram-
maticus. (RDW)

Download/Read the full passage in pdf by Georges Dumézil below.

Read more

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Trilogies as Persuasion | 1 min watch

Little Lawyer Lesson #1: Use Trilogies #shorts. Robert Gouveia Esq.

Trilogies can be very powerful tools of persuasion.
Terence McCarthy, author of MacCarthy on
Cross-Examination, explains just how important
trilogies are in trials.

Little Lawyer Lesson #1: Use Trilogies

Robert Gouveia (formerly Robert Gruler) is a
criminal defense lawyer in Scottsdale, Arizona,
and host of Watching the Watchers, a show
focused on Accountability, Transparency and
Justice.

Source: https://youtube.com/shorts/2Pg82ju0J3c?feature=share

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No ifs, ands, or buts

The phrase no ifs, ands, or buts is a list of words that are often used to begin a sentence that is an explanation or excuse for bad behavior or for not fulfilling an obligation. Most often, no ifs, ands or buts is one of those phrases that is expressed in informal, spoken English.

If someone says they don’t want to hear no ifs, ands, or buts then that means they don’t want to hear any excuses. Example: Jimmy has been relaxing all morning, so his mother said to him, “It’s time for you to do some house chores.

This expression uses the conjunctions to stand for the conditions and objections that they introduce. The earliest phrase to appear was ifs and ands in the 1600s. This phrase is actually an emphatic redundancy, for and often meant “if.” But was tacked on to this pair soon afterward.

President Biden speaking on Covid relief.
Covid relief | President Biden 2021
Partial sources: Dictionary.com, Google.com, Cartoon credit: Mark Anderson
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Security & Exchange Commission

March 6, 2022.

Gary Gensler (SEC Chairman) interview on Jon Stewart speaking about the three pillars of the SEC mission.

  • Investor protection
  • Facilitating capital formation
  • Facilitating fair orderly markets
Jon Stewart interviewing Gary Gensler (SEC)

Gary Gensler is an American government official and former investment banker serving as the chair of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission. Gensler previously led the Biden–Harris transition’s Federal Reserve, Banking, and Securities Regulators agency review team.

Jon Stewart is an American comedian, writer, producer, director, political commentator, actor, and television host. He hosted The Daily Show, a satirical news program on Comedy Central, from 1999 to 2015. Stewart now hosts The Problem with Jon Stewart, which premiered September 2021 on Apple TV+. Wikipedia

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Operation Petticoat

Story

Lieutenant Commander Matt Sherman (Cary Grant) is in charge of the submarine “Sea Tiger,” which was badly damaged at a Philippine shipyard by a Japanese air raid. Seeking to make sail before an oncoming invasion, Sherman enlists the help of newly transferred Lieutenant Nick Holden (Tony Curtis) to use his talents as a con artist to procure the needed supplies. Once they’re underway, Sherman evacuates a group of beautiful nurses, but can’t find anyone who will take them off his hands.

Staring

Initial release: December 3, 1959

Director: Blake Edwards

Starring: Cary Grant; Tony Curtis; Joan O’Brien; Dina Merrill; Gene Evans; Dick Sargent; Arthur O’Connell

Based on: a story suggested by; Paul King; Joseph B. Stone

Music by: David Rose; Henry Mancini (uncredited)

Video clip

Scene: “You see, when a girl’s under 21 she’s protected by law, when she’s over 65 she’s protected by nature. Anywhere in between she’s fair game”.
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Know it All

Definition of know-it-all

Know-it-all: one who claims to know everything Also: one who disdains advice

Synonyms

Smart aleck, wise guy, wiseacre, wisenheimer, smarty pants.

Anchorman movie
Anchorman movie

Examples of ‘know-it-all’ in a sentence

  1. His reputation as an autocratic know-it-all goes before him.
  2. Do not force your opinions on others and definitely do not come across as a know-it-all.
  3. Dad was never a know-it-all, he just wanted me to improve my game.
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The Three Dimensions of a Complete Life

Martin Luther King Jr.

Martin Luther Knig Jr.
Martin Luther King Jr

Rev. Martin Luther King Jr.

Speech Text:

I want to use as the subject from which to preach: “The Three Dimensions of a Complete Life.” (All right) You know, they used to tell us in Hollywood that in order for a movie to be complete, it had to be three-dimensional. Well, this morning I want to seek to get over to each of us that if life itself is to be complete, (Yes) it must be three-dimensional. . .

Three Sound Clips from the speech:

  •       Master the Length of Life
  •       We are Dependent on One Another
  •       The Power Of God

Audio of Complete Speech

      Three Dimensions of a Compete Life

Speech Text:

I want to use as the subject from which to preach: “The Three Dimensions of a Complete Life.” (All right) You know, they used to tell us in Hollywood that in order for a movie to be complete, it had to be three-dimensional. Well, this morning I want to seek to get over to each of us that if life itself is to be complete, (Yes) it must be three-dimensional.

Continue reading The Three Dimensions of a Complete Life

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Three types of hypotheses

* Simple hypothesis

* Complex hypothesis

* Null hypothesis

What is a hypothesis

A hypothesis states your predictions about what your research will find. It is a tentative answer to your research question that has not yet been tested. For some research projects, you might have to write several hypotheses that address different aspects of your research question.

A hypothesis is not just a guess — it should be based on existing theories and knowledge. It also has to be testable, which means you can support or refute it through scientific research methods (such as experiments, observations and statistical analysis of data).

Variables in hypotheses

Hypotheses propose a relationship between two or more variables. An independent variable is something the researcher changes or controls. A dependent variable is something the researcher observes and measures.

Daily apple consumption leads to fewer doctor’s visits.

In this example, the independent variable is apple consumption — the assumed cause. The dependent variable is the frequency of doctor’s visits — the assumed effect.

Three steps to hypothesis testing

  • State the null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis
  • Decide on test static and critical value
  • Compute p-value. If P-value is less than the critical value reject the null hypothesis and accept the alternative hypothesis

Simple hypothesis

Simple hypotheses are ones which give probabilities to potential observations. The contrast here is with complex hypotheses, also known as models, which are sets of simple hypotheses such that knowing that some member of the set is true (but not which) is insufficient to specify probabilities of data points.

Normal curve​
Simple hypothesis – Bell Curve

Complex hypothesis

Complex hypothesis is that one in which there are multiple dependent as well as independent variables. Example: Global warming causes icebergs to melt which in turn causes major changes in weather patterns.

Complex hypothesis
Complex hypothesis

Null hypothesis

A null hypothesis is a hypothesis that says there is no statistical significance between the two variables in the hypothesis. … For example, a null hypothesis would be something like this: There is no statistically significant relationship between the type of water I feed the flowers and growth of the flowers.

null hypothesis
Null hypothesis

Create a Null Hypothesis

Depending on your study, you may need to perform some statistical analysis on the data you collect. When forming your hypothesis statement using the scientific method, it’s important to know the difference between a null hypothesis vs. the alternative hypothesis, and how to create a null hypothesis. 

  • A null hypothesis, often denoted as H0, posits that there is no apparent difference or that there is no evidence to support a difference. Using the motivation example above, the null hypothesis would be that sleep hours have no effect on motivation.
  • An alternative hypothesis, often denoted as H1, states that there is a statistically significant difference, or there is evidence to support such a difference. Going back to the same carrot example, the alternative hypothesis is that a person getting six hours of sleep has less motivation than someone getting eight hours of sleep.
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Three types of paradoxes

The Ways of Paradox and Other Essays

by W.V. Quine

There are essentially three categories of paradoxes

  • Falsidical – Logic based on a falsehood
  • Veridical – Truthful
  • Antinomy – A contradiction, real or apparent, between two principles or conclusions, both of which seem equally justified

Willard Van Orman Quine (AKA W. V. O. Quine, or “Van”to his friends) (1908 – 2000) was an American philosopher and mathematical logician, widely considered one of the most important philosophers of the second half of the 20th Century.