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Ralph E. Freeman – MIT

I’ve also told people that if they are not considering three things then they are not thinking productively (take economics: you can spend money productively, you can throw it away or you can save it until you’ve found a good use for it – this came from Ralph E. Freeman who was head of th Ec Dept when I was a student at MIT.

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American flag

Betsy Ross and assistants sew first flag
Betsy Ross and assistants sew first flag

Three colors on the American flag; red white and blue.

No one knows with absolute certainty who designed the first stars and stripes or who made it. Congressman Francis Hopkinson seems most likely to have designed it, and few historians believe that Betsy Ross, a Philadelphia seamstress, made the first one.

Until the Executive Order of June 24, 1912, neither the order of the stars nor the proportions of the flag was prescribed. Consequently, flags dating before this period sometimes show unusual arrangements of the stars and odd proportions, these features being left to the discretion of the flag maker. In general, however, straight rows of stars and proportions similar to those later adopted officially were used. The principal acts affecting the flag of the United States are the following:


  • On June 14, 1777, in order to establish an official flag for the new nation, the Continental Congress passed the first Flag Act: “Resolved, That the flag of the United States be made of thirteen stripes, alternate red and white; that the union be thirteen stars, white in a blue field, representing a new Constellation.”
  • Act of January 13, 1794 – provided for 15 stripes and 15 stars after May 1795.
  • Act of April 4, 1818 – provided for 13 stripes and one star for each state, to be added to the flag on the 4th of July following the admission of each new state, signed by President Monroe.
  • Executive Order of President Taft dated June 24, 1912 – established proportions of the flag and provided for arrangement of the stars in six horizontal rows of eight each, a single point of each star to be upward.
  • Executive Order of President Eisenhower dated January 3, 1959 – provided for the arrangement of the stars in seven rows of seven stars each, staggered horizontally and vertically.
  • Executive Order of President Eisenhower dated August 21, 1959 – provided for the arrangement of the stars in nine rows of stars staggered horizon tally and eleven rows of stars staggered vertically.
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ScimeterSCIMETAR, n. A curved sword of exceeding keenness, in the conduct of which certain Orientals attain a surprising proficiency, as the incident here related will serve to show. The account is translated from the Japanese by Shusi Itama, a famous writer of the thirteenth century.

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Lady Love: The Lady Washington

Lady Washington This replica of a 1750s three-masted trading vessel resides in the harbor in Aberdeen, Washington state. The Web site features ship specifications, including the configuration below deck; deck points that accommodate six miles of rigging; a sail plan; the ship's log; crew information; volunteer opportunities; photographs; and related links. "The Caribbean Chronicles" describes the vessel's role in the film "Pirates of the Caribbean." From Creative Enterprise Multimedia Studio.

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British Civil Wars, Commonwealth and Protectorate 1638-60

The "War of the Three Kingdoms" involved Scotland, Ireland, England, and Wales. It "laid the foundations of the modern British constitution and underlies many of the political tensions in today's United Kingdom and Republic of Ireland." Find timelines, interactive biographies, a military history (with individual battles and sieges), and annotated Web links.

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America on the Move

This site from The Smithsonian Institution uses “three interconnected routes to explore how transportation shaped our lives, landscapes, culture, and communities.” Features an illustrated and annotated timeline, an “online transportation collection [that] includes more than a thousand artifacts and photographs” (browsable by categories, eras, and regions), and a thematic tour of the collection. Also includes games and materials for classroom use.


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"A Census of Governments is taken at 5-year intervals as required by law….The census covers three major subject fields – government organization, public employment, and government finance."

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Women’s measurements


Barbie 1959The perfect woman was considered to be 36-24-36, measuring chest, waist and hips in inches.

According to Size USA, women’s measurements in 2004 averaged 40 inches in the bust, 34 inches in the waist and 43 inches in the  hips. In 1941, the average woman’s measurements were about 35-27-37. (The 1941 study primarily measured white women; Size  USA included women of all races and determined that African-American and Hispanic women tended to be larger than white and  Asian women.)

Barbie’s measurements if she were life size: 39-23-33

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palaestraeThese establishments were used for training youths in boxing and wrestling and were also frequented by Socrates and other philosophers. This article contains a discussion of the locations of the palaestrae (wrestling schools) that are known to have existed in Athens, and the the function of these establishments.
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The three tailors of Tooley Street

Canning says that three tailors of Tooley Street, Southwark, addressed a petition of grievances to the House of Commons, beginning Continue reading The three tailors of Tooley Street

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Three Wise Monkeys

The three monkeys are Mizaru (見猿), covering his eyes, who sees no evil; Kikazaru (聞か猿), covering his ears, who hears no evil; and Iwazaru (言わ猿), covering his mouth, who speaks no evil.
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foreign aid

economic, military, technical, and financial assistance given on an international, and usually intergovernmental level. U.S. foreign aid programs have included at least three totally different objectives: rehabilitating the economies of war-devastated countries, strengthening the military defenses of allies and friends of the United States, and promoting economic growth in underdeveloped areas. Aid may be given as a grant, with no repayment obligation, or a loan. 1 Continue reading foreign aid